<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
PrimaryLight: #18f
PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
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a {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
a:hover {background-color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
a img {border:0;}

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	border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];
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.tabContents {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
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#sidebar {}
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#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {border:none;color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
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.wizardStep {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];
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.wizardFooter {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];}
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.wizard .changedServer {background:#8080ff;}
.wizard .changedBoth {background:#ff8080;}
.wizard .notFound {background:#ffff80;}
.wizard .putToServer {background:#ff80ff;}
.wizard .gotFromServer {background:#80ffff;}

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.popupTiddler {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; border:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.popup {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-left:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-top:1px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border-right:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; border-bottom:2px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.popup hr {color:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]]; border-bottom:1px;}
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.popup li a, .popup li a:visited {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; border: none;}
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.title {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
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.tagging .button, .tagged .button {border:none;}

.footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}
.selected .footer {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

.sparkline {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]]; border:0;}
.sparktick {background:[[ColorPalette::PrimaryDark]];}

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.warning {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.lowlight {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryLight]];}

.zoomer {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]]; border:3px solid [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}

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.viewer pre {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];}
.viewer code {color:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryDark]];}
.viewer hr {border:0; border-top:dashed 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]]; color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}

.highlight, .marked {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]];}

.editor input {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];}
.editor textarea {border:1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]; width:100%;}
.editorFooter {color:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];}
.readOnly {background:[[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];}

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#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageArea a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::SecondaryLight]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; }
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#backstageButton a {background:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstageButton a:hover {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
#backstagePanel {background:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]] [[ColorPalette::TertiaryDark]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button {border:none; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]];}
.backstagePanelFooter .button:hover {color:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]];}
#backstageCloak {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; opacity:0.6; filter:'alpha(opacity=60)';}
* html .tiddler {height:1%;}

body {font-size:.75em; font-family:arial,helvetica; margin:0; padding:0;}

h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6 {font-weight:bold; text-decoration:none;}
h1,h2,h3 {padding-bottom:1px; margin-top:1.2em;margin-bottom:0.3em;}
h4,h5,h6 {margin-top:1em;}
h1 {font-size:1.35em;}
h2 {font-size:1.25em;}
h3 {font-size:1.1em;}
h4 {font-size:1em;}
h5 {font-size:.9em;}

hr {height:1px;}

a {text-decoration:none;}

dt {font-weight:bold;}

ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
.outdent {margin-left:3em; text-indent:-3em;}
code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

.tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold;}
.tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-style:italic;}

/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
	#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkNonExisting {font-weight:normal; font-style:normal;}
#sidebarTabs .tiddlyLinkExisting {font-weight:bold; font-style:normal;}

.header {position:relative;}
.header a:hover {background:transparent;}
.headerShadow {position:relative; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:-1px; top:-1px;}
.headerForeground {position:absolute; padding:4.5em 0 1em 1em; left:0px; top:0px;}

.siteTitle {font-size:3em;}
.siteSubtitle {font-size:1.2em;}

#mainMenu {position:absolute; left:0; width:10em; text-align:right; line-height:1.6em; padding:1.5em 0.5em 0.5em 0.5em; font-size:1.1em;}

#sidebar {position:absolute; right:3px; width:16em; font-size:.9em;}
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#sidebarOptions a {margin:0 0.2em; padding:0.2em 0.3em; display:block;}
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#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel a {font-weight:bold; display:inline; padding:0;}
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.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em;}
.popupTiddler {position: absolute; z-index:300; padding:1em; margin:0;}

.popup {position:absolute; z-index:300; font-size:.9em; padding:0; list-style:none; margin:0;}
.popup .popupMessage {padding:0.4em;}
.popup hr {display:block; height:1px; width:auto; padding:0; margin:0.2em 0;}
.popup li.disabled {padding:0.4em;}
.popup li a {display:block; padding:0.4em; font-weight:normal; cursor:pointer;}
.listBreak {font-size:1px; line-height:1px;}
.listBreak div {margin:2px 0;}

.tabset {padding:1em 0 0 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0 0 0 0.25em; padding:2px;}
.tabContents {padding:0.5em;}
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.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

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.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

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.title {font-size:1.6em; font-weight:bold;}

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.subtitle {font-size:1.1em;}

.tiddler .button {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}

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.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
.viewer blockquote {line-height:1.5em; padding-left:0.8em;margin-left:2.5em;}
.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
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table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
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.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
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.sparkline {line-height:1em;}
.sparktick {outline:0;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox where print preview displays the noscript content */
<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div id='mainMenu' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
<div id='displayArea'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
[[Table of Contents]]
''Note.'' - The teacher will doubtless deem it advisable to begin with [[Lesson I]] and to use the Introduction for reference.
!Latin Alphabet
<part 1>
''1.'' The Latin alphabet is the same as the English, with the omission of ''j'' and ''w''. ''I'' and ''i'' supply the place of ''J'' and ''j'', as the are used both as vowels and as consonants.
<part 2>
''2.'' Letters are divided into vowels and consonants.
<part 3>
''3.'' Of the consonants
* ''B'', ''c'', ''d'', ''g'', ''k'', ''p'', ''q'', ''t'' are mutes;
* ''L'' and ''r'' are liquids;
* ''M'' and ''n'' are nasals;
* ''X'' and ''z'' are double consonants. ^^1^^
# //X = cs// and //z = ds,// but here //c// in //cs// often represents //g// and sometimes //q, h,// or //v.//
<part 4>
''4.'' ''C, g, q (qu),'' or ''h,'' before ''s,'' generally unites with it and forms ''x:''
* //ducs, dux,// leader;
* //rēgs, rēcs, rēx//, king;
* //coqusī, cocsī, coxī//, I have cooked;
* //trahsī, tracsī, traxī//, I have drawn.
<part 5>
''5.'' ''S'' is generally changed to ''r'' when it stands between two vowels:
* //flõsēs, flõrēs//, flowers;
* //mēnsãsum, mēnsãrum//, of tables;
* //agrõsum, agrõrum//, of fields;
* //esam, eram//, I was.
<part 6>
''6.'' Before ''s'' or ''t'', ''b'' is generally changed to ''p'', and ''g'' to ''c'':
* //scrībsī, scrīpsī//, I have written;
* //scrībtus, scrīptus//, written;
* //regsī, rēcsī, rēxī//, I have ruled;
* //regtus, rēctus//, ruled.
<part 7>
!Pronunciation of Latin^^1^^
!! Roman Method of Pronunciation^^2^^
''7. Vowels'' - The vowel sounds are the following:
|''ā'' like ''a'' in father|//ā'-rā//^^3^^|''a'' like ''a'' in Cuba^^5^^|//at//|
|''ē'' like ''e'' in prey^^4^^|//dē//|''e'' like ''e'' in net|//et//|
|''ī'' like ''i'' in machine^^4^^|//ī'-vī//|''i'' like ''i'' in cigar|//id//|
|''ō'' like ''o'' in old|//ōs//|''o'' like ''o'' in obey|//ob//|
|''ū'' like ''u'' in rule|//ū'-sū//|''u'' like ''u'' in full|//ut//|
1. ''U'' in //qu//, and generally in //gu// and //su// before a vowel, has the sound of //w//: //quī// (kwē), //lin'-gua// (lin'-gwä), //suā'-sit// (swä-sit).
# In this country two distinct methods, the //Roman// and the //English//, are recognized in the pronunciation of Latin. The pupil will, of course, study only the method adopted in the school.
# Those who adopt the English Method will now go to ''11''.
# The Latin vowels marked with the //macron// - are //long in quantity//, i. e., in the duration of the sound (17); those not marked are //short in quantity//; see ''17'', note 3. Observe that the accent is also marked. For the laws of //accentuation//, see ''18'' and ''19''.
# Or //ē// like //ā// in m//a//de, //ī// in //ē// in m//e//, and //ū// like //oo// in m//oo//n.
# The short vowels can be only imperfectly represented in English equivalents. In theory they have the same sounds as the corresponding long vowels, but occupy only have as much time in utterance.
<part 8>
''8. Diphthongs'' - In diphthongs each vowel retains its own sound:
* ''ae'' nearly like ''ai'' in aisle: //aes, mēn-sae//^^1^^
* ''au'' nearly like ''ou'' in out: //aut, au-rum//
* ''ei'' nearly like ''ei'' in veil: //ei, hei//
* ''eu'' nearly like ''eu'' in feud: //neu, neu-ter//^^1^^
* ''oe'' nearly like ''oi'' in coin: //foe-dus//
* ''ui'' nearly like ''we'': //cui// (kwe)
# But in pronouncing //ae// endeavor to unite the sounds of the Latin //a// and //e//, and in pronouncing //eu// unite the sounds of //e// and //u//.
<part 9>
''9. Consonants'' - Most of the consonants are pronounced nearly as in English, but the following require special notice:
* ''c'' like ''c'' in come: //co-ma, cē-na//
* ''ch'' like ''ch'' in chemist: //cho-rus//
* ''g'' like ''g'' in get: //ge'-nus, glō-ri-a//
* ''i'' like ''y'' in yet: //iam// (yam), //iūs// (yoos)^^1^^
* ''s'' like ''s'' in son: //so-nō, sa-cer//
* ''t'' like ''t'' in time: //ti'-mor, tō'-tus//
* ''v'' like ''w'' in we: //vel, vir//
* ''qu'' like ''qu'' in quit: //quī, quō//
# Observe here that //i// is here a consonant; see ''1''.
<part 10>
''10. Syllables'' - In dividing words into syllables -
# Make as many syllables as there are vowels and diphthongs: //mō-re//, //per-suā'-dē//, //mēn'-sae//.
# Join to each vowel as many of the consonants which precede it - one or more - as can be conveniently pronounced at the beginning of a word or syllable: //pa'-ter//, //pa'-trēs//, //ge'-ne-rī//, //do'-mi-nus//, //mēn'-sa//, //bel'-lum//. But -
# Separate compound words into their component parts: //ab'-es//, //ob-ī'-re//.
<part 11>
!! English Method of Pronunciation^^1^^
''11. Vowels'' - Vowels generally have their long or short English sounds.
# Those who adopt the //Roman Pronunciation// will omit the //English Method//.
<part 12>
''12. Long Sounds'' - Vowels have their long English sounds - ''a'' as in //fate//, ''e'' in //mete//, ''i'' in //pine//, ''o'' in //note//, ''u'' in //tube//, ''y'' in //type// - in the following situations:
# In final syllables ending in a vowel: //Se, si, ser'-vi, ser'-vo, cor'-nu, mi'-sy//.
# In all syllables, before a vowel or diphthong: //De'-us, de-o'-rum, de'-ae, di-e'-i, ni'-hil//.^^1^^
# In penultimate^^2^^ syllables before a single consonant, or before a mute followed by a liquid: //Pa'-ter, pa'-tres, ho-no'-ris//.
# In unaccented syllables, not final, before a single consonant, or before a mute followed by a liquid: //Do-lo'-ris, cor'-po-ri, con'-su-lis, a-gric'-o-la//.
## ''A'' //unaccented//, except before consonants in final syllables (''13,1'') has the sound of //a final// in //America//: //men'-sa, a-cu'-tus//.
## ''I'' and ''y'' //unaccented//, except the first and last, generally have the short sound: //nob'-i-lis, a-cu'-tus// (nob'-e-lis).
## ''I'' preceded by an accented //a//, //e//, //o//, or //y//, and followed by another vowel, is a consonant with the sound of //y// in //yet//: //A-cha'-ia// (A-ka'-ya), //Pom-pe'-ius// (Pom-pe'-yus).
## ''U'' in //qu//, and generally in //gu// and //su// before a vowel, has the sound of //w//: //qui// (kwi), //qua//; //lin'-gua// (lin'-gwa); //sua'-de-o// (swa'-de-o).
## When the first part of a compound is entire and ends in a consonant, any vowel before such consonant has generally the //short// sound: //ab'-es//, //in'-it//.
# In these rules no account is taken of the aspirate //h//: hence the first //i// in //nihil// is treated as a vowel before another vowel.
# Penultimate: the last syllable but one.
<part 13>
''13. Short Sounds'' - Vowels have their short English sounds - ''a'' as in //fat//, ''e'' in //met//, ''i'' in //pin//, ''o'' in //not//, ''u'' in //tub//, ''y'' in //myth// - not in the following situations:
# In final syllables ending in a consonant: //A'-mat//, //a'-met//, //rex'-it//; except //post//, //es final//, and //os final// in plural cases: //res//, //di'-es//, //hos//, //a'-gros//.
# In all accented syllables, not penultimate, before one or more consonants: //Dom'-i-nus//, //pat'-ri-bus//. But -
## ''A'', ''e'', or ''o'' before a consonant (or a mute and a liquid), followed by //e//, //i//, or //y// before another vowel, has the long sound: //a'-ci-es//, //a'-cri-a//, //me'-re-o//, //do'-ce-o//.
## ''U'', in any syllable not final, before a single consonant or a mute and a liquid, except //bl//, has the long sound: //sa-lu'-bri-tas//.
<part 14>
''14. Diphthongs'' - Diphthongs are pronounced as follows:
* ''Ae'' like ''e'': //Cae'-sar//, //Daed'-a-lus//^^1^^
* ''Oe'' like ''e'': //Oe'-ta//, //Oed'-i-pus//^^1^^
* ''Au'' as in author: //au'-rum//
* ''Eu''^^2^^ as in neuter: //neu'-ter//
# That is, the diphthong is pronounced precisely as //e// would be in the same situation.
# //Ei// and //oi// are seldom diphthongs, but when so used they are pronounced as in //height//, //coin//: //hei//, //proin//. //Ui// as a diphthong, with the long sound of //i//, occurs in //cui//, //hui//, //huic//.
<part 15>
''15. Consonants'' - The consonants are pronounced in general as in English. Thus:
# ''C'' and ''g'' are //soft// (like //s// and //j//) before //e//, //i//, //y//, //ae//, and //oe//, and //hard// in other situations:^^1^^ //ce'do// (se'-do), //ci-vis//, //cae'-do//, //a'-ge// (a'-je); //ca'-do// (ka'-do), //co'-go//.
# ''S'', ''t'', and ''x'' are generally pronounced as in the English words //son//, //time//, //expect//: //sa'-cer//, //ti'-mor//, //rex'-si// (//rek'-si//). But -
## //S//, //t//, and //x// are aspirated before //i// preceded by an accented syllable and followed by a vowel - //s// and //t// taking the sound of //sh//, and //x// that of //ksh//: //Al'-si-um// (Al'-she-um), //ar'-ti'-um// (ar'-she-um), //anx'-i-us// (ank'-she-us).
## //X// at the beginning of a word has the sound of //z//: //Xan'-thus//.
<part 16>
''16. Syllables'' - In dividing words into syllables -
# Make as many syllables as there are vowel and diphthongs: //mo'-re//, //per-suad'-de//, //men'-sae//.
# Distribute the consonants so as to give the proper sound to each vowel and diphthong, as determined by previous rules (12-14): //pa'-ter//, //pa'-tres//, //a-gro'-rum//, //au-di'-vi//, //gen'-e-ri//, //dom'-i-nus//.
<part 17>
''17.'' Syllables are in quantity or length either long, short, or common.^^1^^
# Long - A syllable is long in quantity -
## If it contains a diphthong or a long vowel: //haec//, //rēs//^^2^^
## If its vowel is followed by //x// or //z//, or any two consonants, except a mute and a liquid:^^3^^ //dux//, //rēx//, //sunt//^^4^^
# Short - A syllable is short, if its vowel is followed by another vowel, by a diphthong, or by the aspirate //h//: //di-ēs//, //vi-ae//, //ni'-hil//^^5^^
# Common - A syllable is common, if its vowel, naturally short,^^6^^, is followed by a mute and a liquid: //a-grī//.
# Common, i. e., sometimes long and sometimes short.
# See Note 3, below.
# That is, in the order here given, with the mute before the liquid.
# Observe that the vowel in such syllables may be either long or short. Thus it is long in //rēx//, but short in //dux// and //sunt//.
# By referring to ''7'', it will be seen that in the Roman Method, //quantity// and //sound// coincide with each other: a vowel long in quantity is long in sound, and a vowel short in quantity is short in sound. But, by referring to ''12'' and ''13'', it will be seen that, in the English Method, the quantity of a vowel does not at all affect its sound, except in determining the accent ''19''. Hence, in pronouncing according to the English Method, determine the place of the accent by the quantity, according to ''19'', and then determine the sounds of the letters irrespective of quantity, according to ''12''-''15''.
''To be continued''
!Subject and Object - Singular Number^^1^^
<part 29>
''29.'' Examine the following sentences and notice carefully the endings of the words:
|Laudat|//He praises//, or //praises//|
|Poēta laudat|//The poet praises//^^2^^|
|Poēta rēgīnam laudat|//The poet praises the queen//|
|Rēgīna poētam laudat|//The queen praises the poet//|
In these examples observe
# That the verb, laud''at'', ends in ''at''.^^3^^
# That the noun, poēt''a'', rēgīn''a'', used as the subject of //laudat//, ends in ''a''.^^4^^
# That the noun, poēt''am'', rēgīn''am'', used as the object of //laudat//, ends in ''am''.^^5^^
# It is advised that the [[Introduction]] be used mainly for reference, but that such parts of it be learned from time to time as the interest of the class may require. For pronunciation the pupil must at first depend upon his teacher, but he will soon be able to profit by the rules contained in the Introduction.
# As Latin has no article, a noun may, according to the connection in which it is used, be translated (1) with the definite article //the: // as, //poēta//, the poet; (2) with the indefinite articl //a// or //an:// as, //poēta//, a poet; (3) without the article: as, //poēta//, poet.
# This is a regular ending in the singular number of a large class of Latin verbs.
# This is a regular ending in the singular number of a large class of nouns when used as the //subject// of a verb. The forms in //a// are in the //Nominative Case//.
# This is a regular ending in the singular number of a large class of nouns when used as the //object// of a verb. The forms in //am// are in the //Accusative Case//.
<part 30>
!''30.'' Vocabulary
|Nouns - singular number|c
|''corōna''|''corōnam''|wreath, garland, crown|//crown//|
|''epistula''|''epistulam''|letter, epistle|//epistle//|
|''fābula''|''fābulam''|story, tale, fable|//fable//|
|''puella''|''puellam''|girl, maiden||

|''amat''|(he, she, it) loves^^2^^|//am//-iable|
|''dēlectat''|(he, she, it) delights, pleases|//delight//|
|''laudat''|(he, she, it) praises|//laud//^^3^^|
# The English words inserted in this column are either derived from the Latin, directly or indirectly, or are closely related to it in origin, form, and meaning. They are here introduced partly to help the learner retain the form and meaning of the corresponding Latin words, and partly to show him how closely our own language is related to the Latin, and how much it is indebted to that language for its rich vocabulary.
# When //amat// has no subject expressed, it means //he loves//, //she loves//, or //it loves//, but with a subject it means simply //loves//: //poēta amat//, the poet loves; see also above, //laudat//, he praises, and //poēta laudat//, the poet praises.
# Other derivatives, more or less closely connected with these Latin words, are: //corona//-l, //corone//-t; //epistola//-ry; //fabul//-ous; //poet//-ic; //ama//-tory, //ama//-teur; //delight//-ful, //delecta//-ble; //lauda//-ble, //lauda//-tory.
<part 31>
!!''31.'' Translate into English
# Fābula puellam dēlectat.
# Puella fābulam laudat.
# Poēta puellam laudat.
# Puella poētam laudat.
# Puella rēgīnam amat.
# Rēgīna puellam amat.
# Corōna rēgīnam dēlectat.
# Rēgīna corōnam laudat.
# Epistula poētam dēlectat.
# Poēta epistulam laudat.
<part 32>
!!''32.'' Translate into Latin
# The girl praises the queen.
# The queen praises the girl.
# The story pleases the poet.
# The poet praises the story.
# The wreath delights the girl.
# The girl praises the wreath.
# The letter delights the queen.
# The queen praises the letter.
# The queen praises the story.
# The story pleases the queen.

!Subject and Object - Plural Number
<part 33>
''33.'' Examine the following sentences and notice carefully the endings of the words:
|Laudant|//They praise//, or //praise//|
|Poētae laudant|//The poets praise//|
|Poētae rēgīnās laudant|//The poets praise the queens//|
|Rēgīnae poētās laudant|//The queens praise the poets//|
In these examples observe:
# That the verb, laud''ant'', ends in ''ant''.^^1^^
# That the noun, poēt''ae'', rēgīn''ae'', used as the subject of //laudant//, ends in ''ae''.^^2^^
# That the noun, poēt''ās'', rēgīn''ās'', used as the object of //laudant//, ends in ''ās''.^^3^^
# This is a regular ending in the plural of a large class of Latin verbs.
# This is a regular ending in the plural of a large class of nouns when used ās the //subject// of a verb. the forms in //ae// are in the //Nominative Plural//. Observe that the verb is plural when the subject is plural, as in English.
# This is a regular ending in the plural of a large class of nouns when used ās the //object// of a verb. the forms in //ās// are in the //Accusative Plural//.
<part 34>
!''34.'' Vocabulary
|Nouns - Plural Number|c
|''coronae''|''coronas''|wreaths, garlands, crowns|//crown//|
|''epistulae''|''epistulas''|letters, epistles|//epistle//|
|''fabulae''|''fabulas''|stories, tales, fables|//fable//|
|''puellae''|''puellas''|girls, maidens||

|Verbs - Plural Number|c
|''amant''|(they) love|//am//-iable|
|''dēlectant''^^1^^|(they) delight, please|//delight//|
|''laudant''|(they) praise|//laud//|
# Compare these three verbs with the corresponding forms in the singular in [[Lesson I]] and notice the difference in the endings, //at, ant//: am-//at//, am-//ant//; dēlect-//at, dēlect-//ant; laud-//at//, laud-//ant//.
<part 35>
!!''35.'' Translate into English
# Corōnae rēgīnās dēlectant.
# Rēgīnae corōnās laudant.
# Fābulae puellās dēlectant.
# Puellae fābulās laudant.
# Poētae puellās laudant.
# Puellae poētās laudant.
# Epistulae puellās dēlectant.
# Fābulae poētās dēlectant.
# Corōnae rēgīnam dēlectant.
# Rēgīna corōnās laudat.
# Fābula puellās dēlectat.
# Fābulae puellam dēlectant.
# Puellae rēgīnam amant.
# Rēgīna puellās amat.
<part 36>
!!''36.'' Translate into Latin
# The letters please the poets.
# The poets praise the letters.
# Poets praise queens.
# Queens praise poets.
# The garlands delight the girls.
# The girls praise the garlands.
# The girls praise the story.
# Poets praise the story.
# The story pleases the poets.
# The girls praise the queen.
# The queen praises the girls.
# Poets praise the queen.
# The letter pleases the girl.
# The girl praises the letter.
In all previous examples and exercises observe:
# That the //subjects// are all in the //Nominative// case.
# That the //objects// are all in the //Accusative// case.
<part 37>
''37.'' These facts are illustrations of Latin usage as stated in the following rules:
;Rule III - Subject Nominative
:The Subject of a finite verb (that is, of any part of the verb except the Infinitive) is put in the Nominative.
;Rule V - Direct Object
:The Direct Object of an action is put in the Accusative.
!Nouns - First Declension
<part 38>
''38.'' The Latin has six cases:
|!Names|!Ordinary English Equivalents|
|Genitive|Possessive, or Objective with //of//|
|Dative|Objective with //to// or //for//|
|Vocative|Nominative Independent|
|Ablative^^1^^|Objective with //from//, //with//, //by//, //in//.|
''Note'' - Locative - The Latin has also a few remnants of another case, called the Locative, denoting //the place in which//.
<part 39>
;''39.'' Declension
: The process by which the several cases of a word are formed is called Declension. It consists in the addition of certain suffixes to one common base called the stem. In Latin there are five declensions.
# Often with a preposition, like the Objective case in English.
!First Declension - ''A'' Nouns
<part 40>
''40.'' Most nouns of the first declension end in ''a'', and are //feminine//. They are declined as follows:
|Singular|//Nominative//|mēns''a''|//a table//^^2^^|''a''|
|~|//Genitive//|mēns''ae''|//of a table//|''ae''|
|~|//Dative//|mēns''ae''|//to, for a table//|''ae''|
|~|//Accusative//|mēns''am''|//a table//|''am''|
|Plural|//Nominative//|mēns''ae''|//a table//|''ae''|
|~|//Genitive//|mēns''ārum''|//of a table//|''ārum''|
|~|//Dative//|mēns''īs''|//to, for a table//|''īs''|
|~|//Accusative//|mēns''ās''|//a table//|''ās''|
# Stem - In nouns of the first declension, the stem ends in ''ā''.
# In the Paradigm, observe that the stem is //mēnsā//, and that the several cases are distinguished by their case-endings.
# Examples for practice - like ''mēnsa'' decline: ''Ala'', //wing//; ''aqua'', //water//; ''causa'', //cause//; ''fortūna'', //fortune//.
# Locative - Names of towns and a very few other words have a Locative, ending in ''ae'' in the singular and in ''is'' in the plural: ''Rōmae'', //at Rome//; ''Athēnīs'', //at Athens//.  See ''[[38|Lesson III/38]]'', note.
# These //case-endings// should be carefully studied and compared, as they will serve as a guide to the learner in distinguishing the different cases and in ascertaining the meaning of words. Observe
## that the //Nominative// and //Vocative// are alike
## that the //Dative// and //Ablative// plural are alike
## that the //Genitive// and //Dative// singular, and the //Nominative// and //Vocative// plural are all alike.
# //Mēnsa// may be translated //a table//, //table//, or //the table//.
# The Ablative, used sometimes with a preposition and sometimes without, is variously rendered, but in the paradigms it is thought best to give only one or two meanings, as the appropriate rendering depends largely on the context.
!First Declension - Genitive
<part 41>
''41.'' Examine the following sentences and notice carefully the ending and use of the Genitive:
|Poēta fīliam ''rēgīnae'' laudat|//The poet praises the daughter ''of the queen''//|
|Rēgīna fīliam ''poētae'' laudat|//The queen praises the daughter ''of the poet''//^^1^^|
Observe that the Genitive in each of these sentences shows //whose// daughter is meant: fīliam ''rēgīnae'', //the daughter ''of the queen''//; fīliam ''poētae'', //the daughter ''of the poet''//. It is said to qualify or limit ''fīliam''. It simply answers the question, //''whose?''// The genitives in the following exercise are all used in this way.
# Observe that the Genitives are in ''bold-faced type'' and the corresponding English is in //''bold italics''//.
<part 42>
!''42.'' Vocabulary
|''agricola''|''agricolae''|m^^3^^|farmer, husbandman||
|''dīligentia''|''dīligentiae''|f|diligence, industry|//diligence//|
|''nauta''|''nautae''|m|sailor, mariner|//nauti//-cal|
|''patria''|''patriae''|f|one's country, native land|//patria//-l|

|Proper Names|c

|''ambulat''^^7^^|(he, she, it) walks or is walking|//ambula//-tory|
|''ambulant''|(they) walk or are walking||
|''cantat''|(he, she, it) sings or is singing|//canto//|
|''cantant''|(they) sing or are singing||
# In the vocabularies the Nominative and Genitive Singular of nouns are given. All the other cases in both numbers are readily formed from these.
# Observe that the words given in the column of derivatives are never to be used as //definitions//, unless the also stand in the column of meanings. Thus, //diligence// is at once a //definition// and a //derivative//. It accordingly stands in both columns. //Filial//, //nautical//, and //patrial// are only derivatives and not definitions.
# Gender is indicated by
## //m// for //masculine//,
## //f// for //feminine//, and
## //n// for //neuter//.
# We here treat //filia// as entirely regular in declension, taking no account of an irregular form sometimes used in the dative and ablative plural.
# //I// in //Iulia// is a consonant with the sound of //y//; see [[1|Introduction/1]] and 9.
# Observe that all the nouns that have occurred in the vocabularies, with two exceptions, are of the //feminine gender// according to 40. The two exceptions, //agricola// and //nauta//, are //masculine// because they denote //males: farmer, sailor//. The names of //males// are regularly masculine: see 27.
# Observe that the forms in //at// are singular, those in //ant// plural.
<part 43>
!!''43.'' Translate into English
# Fīlia rēgīnae cantat.
# Fīlia Cornēliae cantat.
# Fīlia nautae ambulat.
# Fīlia agricolae ambulat.
# Iūlia fīliam Victoriae amat.
# Fīlia rēgīnae Iūliam amat.
# Iūlia fīlias rēgīnae laudat.
# Victōria fīliam Cornēliae amat.
# Fīlia nautae Tulliam amat.
# Fīliae nautārum Tulliam amant.
# Cornēlia fīlias nautārum amat.
# Rēgīna diligentiam Tulliae laudat.
# Rēgīna patriam^^1^^ laudat.
# Agricolae patriam^^1^^ amant.
# Fīliae poetārum cantant.
# Fīliae agricolārum ambulant.
<part 44>
!!''44.'' Translate into Latin
# The daughter of Tullia is walking.
# The daughter of the queen is walking.
# The daughter of the poet is singing.
# The letter delights the daughter of the farmer.
# The letters delight the daughters of the sailor.
# The daughters of the poet are singing.
# The daughters of the farmer are walking.
# The stories please the daughters of the farmers.
# Cornelia praises the diligence of the farmer.
# The poets praise the diligence of the farmers.
# Tullia praises the diligence of Julia.
# Julia praises the diligence of Cornelia.
# Cornelia loves //her//^^2^^ native land.
# The daughters of Cornelia love //their//^^2^^ native land.
# Render //her country, their country//. In Latin the possessive pronouns, meaning //his, her, their//, when not emphatic, are often omitted.
# Omit in translating into Latin; see footnote 1.
!Nouns in ''A'', ''US'', and ''UM'', continued. - Predicate Nominative - Preposition ''IN''
<part 63>
''63.'' Examine the following sentences:
|Mārcus poēta laudātur.|//Marcus the poet is praised.//|
|Mārcus est ''poēta.''|//Marcus is ''a poet''.//|
In the first example, ''poēta'' is an Appositive; see ''[[50|Lesson VI/50]]'', Rule II. In the second example, however, ''poēta'' is a Predicate Noun, and is said to be //predicated// or //affirmed// of ''Mārcus;'' see ''[[23|Introduction/23]]''^^1^^ Observe that it is in the same case as ''Mārcus'', i. e., in the //Nominative//. This usage is expressed in the following rule:
;Rule 1 - Predicate Nouns
:A noun predicated of another noun denoting the same person or thing agrees with it in Case.
<part 64>
''64.'' Examine the following sentences:
|Ubī est rēgīna?|//Where is the queen?//|
|Rēgīna ''in Ītaliā'' est.|//The queen is ''in Italy''.//|
|Ubī est Cornēlia?|//Where is Cornelia?//|
|Cornēlia est ''in templō.''|//Cornelia is ''in the temple''.//|
|Ubī est puer?|//Where is the boy?//|
|Puer est ''in hortō''.|//The boy is ''in the garden''.//|
Observe that in these examples the preposition ''in'' is followed by //the ablative,// and that //the ablative with the preposition// is used precisely like the //English Objective Case with the preposition in// to answer the question ''Where? In what place?''
# For a clearer understanding of //Predicate Nouns//, the pupil is advised to read very carefully section ''[[23|Introduction/23]]'', with the note, in the introduction.
<part 65>
!''65.'' Vocabulary
|''fundus''|''fundī''|m|farm, estate|//fund//|
|''hortus''|''hortī''|m|garden, ground|//horti//-culture|

|Proper names|c

|''in''|//preposition with ablative//|in|//in//|

|''habet''|(he, she, it) has, holds|
|''habent''|(they) have, hold|
|''est''|(he, she, it) is|
|''sunt''|(they) are|
<part 66>
!!''66.'' Translate into English.
# Quis est Mārcus? Mārcus est poēta.
# Ubī est poēta? Poēta Mārcus est in Eurōpā.
# Nōn-ne Victōria est rēgīna? Est rēgina.
# Ubī est Cornēlia? Cornēlia in Graeciā est.
# Quis est medicus? Phīdippus est medicus.
# Nōn-ne Phīdippus est servus? Phīdippus est medicus et servus.
# Ubī est medicus? Phīdippus medicus est in oppidō.
# Ubī sunt statuae? Statuae in templīs sunt.
# Nōn-ne Iūlia est fīlia poētae? Est fīlia poētae.
# Ubī est Iūlia? Iūlia filia poētae in Eurōpa est.
# Ubī est Ricardus? In hortō est.
# Quis puellīs māla dat? Ricardus puellīs māla et pira dat.
# Pira et māla puellīs saepe dantur.
# Ubī est fundus? In Virginiā est.
# Quis est dominus fundī? Titus est dominus fundī.
<part 67>
!!''67.'' Translate into Latin.
# Is not Albert the friend of Titus? He is the friend of Titus.
# Who is the physician? Albert is the physician.
# Is not Tullia the daughter of the queen? She is the daughter of the queen.
# Who is the poet? The poet is Marcus.
# Are there not temples in Greece? There are temples in Greece and in Italy.
# Who is Titus? Titus is a farmer.
# Is not Italy the native land of poets? Greece is the native land of poets.
# Where is Tullia? Tullia, the daughter of the queen, is in Italy.
# Where are the girls? They are in the garden.
# Is not Richard in the garden? He is in the garden. He is giving pears to the girls.
# Where is Julia's estate? It is in Italy.
# Who has an estate in Virginia? Richard has a farm in Virginia.
# Where is Henry? He is now in Virginia.
!First Declension - Apposition
<part 45>
''45.'' Examine the following sentences:
|Poēta Vīctōriam ''rēgīnam'' laudat|//The poet praises Victoria ''the queen''//|
|Vīctōria ''rēgīna'' laudātur|//Victoria ''the queen'' is praised//|
A noun qualifying another noun denoting the same person or thing is called an //appositive//, and is always in the same case as the noun which it qualifies.^^1^^
<part 46>
''46.'' Examine the following sentences:
|''Quis'' rēgnat?|//''Who'' reigns or is reigning?//|
|Tullia nōn rēgnat.|//Tullia is not reigning.//|
|''Nōn-ne'' Tullia rēgnat?|//Is ''not'' Tullia reigning?//|
|''Nōn-ne'' Tullia cantat?|//Does ''not'' Tullia sing?//|
In these examples observe:
# The effect of the interrogative words, ''quis'', //''who?''// and ''nōn-ne'', //''not?''//^^2^^
# That the Latin ''nōn'', in the second example. stands before the verb ''rēgnat'', while in the English the two parts of the verb, //is reigning//, are separated and the negative //not// stands between them.
# That in the English of the third and of the fourth example, not only the negative but also the //subject Tullia// stands between the two parts of the verbs, //is....reigning// and //does....sing//: //is ''not Tullia'' reigning? does ''not Tullia'' sing?//
''Note 1.'' - In English we may say 'he loves', 'he is loving', or 'he does love,' but each of these expressions must be rendered into Latin by the single word //amat//; so in the plural, 'they love', 'they are loving,' or 'they do love,' must be rendered by //amant//. So also in other verbs:
|he loves, he is loving, he does love|amat|
|they love, they are loving, they do love|amant|
|he praises, he is praising, he does praise|laudat|
|they praise, they are praising, they do praise|laudant|
|he pleases, he is pleasing, he does please|dēlectat|
|they please, they are pleasing, they do please|dēlectant|
In writing Latin the learner must constantly bear in mind this peculiarity of the English.
# Thus in the first example the //Appositive// is in the //Accusative// because it qualifies an Accusative, //Victoriam//, and in the second in the //Nominative// because it qualifies a Nominative, //Victoria//.
# Observe that //nōn-ne// is formed by appending //-ne// to //nōn//. The particle //-ne// simply changes //nōn//, not, to a question: //nōn-ne? ''not?''//
<part 47>
!''47.'' Vocabulary
|Proper Names|c

|''exspectat''|(he, she, it) expects, waits for^^1^^|//expect//|
|''exspectant''|(they) expect, wait for^^1^^|//expect//|

|''saepe''|often, frequently|
|''semper''|always, ever, forever|

|Interrogative Pronoun|c
# Or, 'he is expecting, is waiting for'; 'they are expecting, are waiting for.'
# See footnote 2 in the previous section
# //Quis// is in the Nominative Singular Masculine, and is used like the English //who//.
<part 48>
!!''48.'' Translate into English
# Quis Iūliam laudat.
# Poēta Iūliam fīliam^^1^^ laudat.
# Nōn-ne Vīctōria fīliās^^1^^ amat?^^2^^
# Vīctōria rēgīna fīliās amat.
# Quis rēgīnam saepe laudat?
# Poēta Vīctōriam rēgīnam semper laudat.
# Vīctōria rēgīna poētās laudat.
# Epistulae Vīctōriam rēgīnam dēlectant.
# Nōn-ne fabula Iūliam saepe dēlectat?
# Fābula Iūliam, fīliam poētae, semper dēlectat.
# Iūlia, filia poētae, epistulam exspectat.
# Quis Graeciam semper laudat?
# Iūlia, filia poētae, Graeciam semper laudat.
# Iūlia, filia poētae, Graeciam patriam poētārum semper laudat.
# Quis dīligentiam agricolae nunc laudat?
# Poētae dīligentiam agricolārum saepe laudant.
<part 49>
!!''49.'' Translate into Latin.
# Does not the poet love his^^3^^ daughter?^^4^^
# The poet loves his daughter, Julia.
# Does not the queen love her^^3^^ daughter?^^4^^
# The queen loves her daughter Lavinia.
# Does not the queen love her daughter Tullia?
# She loves her daughter Tullia.
# The farmer is always praising his daughter Amelia.^^4^^
# Cornelia loves Italy, her native land.
# Who is always praising the story?
# Julia, the daughter of the poet, is always praising the story.
# The garland delights Julia, the daughter of the poet.
# Does not the story please the daughter of the farmer?
# Stories always please the daughters of the farmer.
# Is not Tullia now expecting a letter?^^4^^
# Tullia, the daughter of the queen, is not expecting a letter.
# //Filiam//, his daughter; //fīliās//, her daughters: see footnote to [[43|Lesson IV/43]], 13.
# For the rendering of questions with //nōn-ne//, see [[46|Lesson V/46]], 3 and 4.
# In translating into Latin, omit for the present the possessives //his, her, their//, etc.
# Remember that the two words //does love//, though here separated, are rendered into Latin by the single word //amat//, and that //is praising// is rendered by //laudat// and //is expecting// by //exspectat//.
!First Declension - Review - Certain Forms of Verbs
<part 50>
''50.'' By comparing the examples under [[41|Lesson IV/41]] with the examples under [[45|Lesson V/45]], and by observing the //Appositives// and //Genitives// in the exercises, we discover that a noun which qualifies or limits another noun is put:
# In the same case as that noun if it denotes the same person or thing.
# In the Genitive if it denotes a different person or thing.
<part 51>
''51.'' These facts are illustrations of Latin usage, as state in the following rules:
;Rule II - Appositives
:An Appositive agrees in case with the noun or pronoun which it qualifies.
;Rule XVI - Genitive with Nouns
:Any noun not an appositive, qualifying the meaning of another noun, is put in the Genitive.
''Note'' - Point out in the Latin sentences in the preceding lesson three or more //Appositives// and three or more //Genitives//.
<part 52>
!''52.'' Vocabulary
|>|!Active Voice|>|!Passive Voice|
|''amat''|(he)^^1^^ loves^^2^^|''amātur''|(he) is loved|
|''amant''|(they) love|''amantur''|(they) are loved|
|''dēlectat''|(he) pleases^^3^^|''dēlectātur''|(he) is pleased|
|''dēlectant''|(they) please|''dēlectantur''|(they) are pleased|
|''exspectat''|(he) expects^^4^^|''exspectātur''|(he) is expected|
|''exspectant''|(they) expect|''exspectantur''|(they) are expected|
|''laudat''|(he) praises|''laudātur''|(he) is praised|
|''laudant''|(they) praise|''laudantur''|(they) are praised|
In the Latin of this vocabulary compare the //passive// forms with the //active//, and observe that they may be obtained by simply adding ''ur'' to the active. Thus:
''Note 1'' - In the English - '//is loving//' and '//is loved,//' '//are loving//' and '//are loved//' - note carefully the difference in meaning, and be not misled by the resemblance in form. '//He is loving//' and '//they are loving//' are //active// forms to be rendered by //amat// and //amant//, while '//he is loved//' and '//they are loved//' are //passive// forms to be rendered by //amātur// and //amantur//.
# In the English, the subject of any of these verbs in the singular may be //he, she//, or //it//, according as the sense requires.
# In the English the verb in the active voice may take any one of the three formes mentioned in ''[[46|Lesson V/46]]'', Note 1, for each number, singular and plural: //amat//, 'he loves', 'is loving', or 'does love'; //amant//, 'they love', 'are loving', or 'do love'. So in each of the other verbs.
# //Pleases// or //delights//, as in previous vocabulary; see ''[[30|Lesson I/30]]''.
# //Expects, awaits//, or //waits for//; see ''[[47|Lesson V]]''.
<part 53>
!!''53.'' Translate into English
# Quis saepe laudātur?
# Poēta semper laudātur.
# Poētae semper laudantur.
# Iūlia, fīlia poētae, semper laudātur.
# Nōn-ne rēgīnae saepe laudantur?
# Vīctōria rēgīna semper laudatur.
# Quis exspectātur? Poēta exspectātur.
# Nōn-ne Tullia exspectātur? Exspectātur.
# Nōn-ne espistulae exspectantur? Exspectantur.
# Nōn-ne nauta dēlectātur? Nōn dēlectātur.
# Nōn-ne nautae amantur? Nōn amantur.
# Quis dēlectātur? Tullia, fīlia rēgīnae, semper dēlectātur.
# Quis agricolam nunc laudat? Agricola saepe laudātur.
# Quis nautam amat? Nauta non amātur. Nautae nōn semper amantur.
# Nōn-ne epistulās exspectant? Epistulae exspectantur.
# Nōn-ne Iūlia amātur? Tullia Iūliam fīliam poētae amat.
<part 54>
!!''54.'' Translate into Latin
# Who is always pleased?
# Julia, the daughter of the poet is always pleased.
# Who is always praised?
# The daughter of the queen is often praised.
# Is not the poet expected? He is expected.
# Are not the daughters of the poet expected? They are expected.
# Who now praises Greece, the native land of poets?
# Greece, the native land of poets, is often praised.
# Does not the garland delight the daughter of the sailor?
# The daughter of the sailor is delighted.
# Who is now praising the diligence of the girls?
# The diligence of the girls is often praised.
# The letter delights the daughter of the queen.
# The daughter of the queen is delighted.
# The stories delight the daughters of the queen.
# The daughters of the queen are delighted.
!Nouns - Second Declension
<part 55>
''55.'' Most nouns of the second declension end in ''er, ir, us,'' and ''um''. Those in ''er, ir'', and ''us'' are masculine and those in ''um'' are neuter.
''Note'' - For this lesson, learn only the declension of ''dominus''.
Nouns in ''us'' and ''um'' are declined as follows:
|Dominus, //master//. Templum, //temple//.|c

''Note 1'' - The ablative of nouns denoting persons is generally used with a preposition: ''ā dominō'', //by// or //from a master;// ''cum dominō'', //with a master//.
''Note 2'' - Give the meaning of ''dominus'' in the different cases, using ''ā'' or ''cum'' with the ablative.
<part 56>
!''56.'' Vocabulary
|''dominus''|''dominī''|m|master, owner|//domin//-ion|
|''lūdus''|''lūdī''|m|game, play|//domin//-ion|
|''servus''|''servī''|m|slave, servant|//serv//-ant|

|Proper Names|c

|''accūsat''|(he) accuses|''accūsātur''|(he) is accused|//accuse//|
|''accūsant''|(they) accuse|''accūsāntur''|(they) are accused||
<part 57>
!!''57.'' Translate into English
# Quis Titum agricolam amat?
# Albertus Titum amīcum amat.
# Nōn-ne servus dominum amat?
# Servī dominum saepe amant.
# Quis medicum nunc exspectat?
# Titus agricola medicum exspectat.
# Albertus medicus exspectātur.
# Medicī rēgīnae exspectantur.
# Medicī rēgīnae exspectant epistulās.
# Fīliae medicī exspectant amīcōs.
# Quis Phīdippum servum accūsat?
# Servī Albertī Phīdippum accūsant?
# Servī saepe accūsantur.
# Nōn-ne servus Albertī medicī^^1^^ accūsātur?
<part 58>
!!''58.'' Translate into Latin
# Does not the game delight the girl?
# Games often delight girls.
# Does not Titus often praise his servants?
# Titus is always praising the diligence of his servants.
# The diligence of servants is not always praised.
# Is not Marcus expecting friends?
# Marcus is expecting his friend Titus.
# The friends of Cornelia are now expected.
# Who now expects letters?
# The friends of Tullia expect letters.
# The letter of the physician delights Titus.
# Who praises the daughter of the physician?
# The queen praises the daughters of Albert, the physician.
# The daughters of the physician are often praised.
# The learner will observe that //Albertī// and //medicī// are in the Genitive for different reasons: //Albertī// because it limits //servus// denoting a //different// person according to ''[[50|Lesson VI/50]]'', Rule XVI; but //medicī// because it is an //Appositive// to another //Genitive//, viz., //Albertī//, according to ''[[50|Lesson VI/50]]'', Rule II.
!Second Declension - Nouns in ''UM'' - Indirect Object - Dative
''Note'' - For this lesson learn the declension of ''templum'', and compare it carefully with ''dominus''^^1^^; see ''[[55|Lesson VII/55]]'', [[Lesson VII]].
<part 59>''59.'' Examine the following sentences:
|Titus ''medicō'' ūvam dat.|//Titus gives a cluster of grapes ''to the physician''//.|
|Ūva ''medicō'' datur.|//A cluster of grapes is given ''to the physician''//.|
In these examples observe:
# That ''medicō'' designates the person to whom the grapes are given. A word thus used to designate the person //''to''// or //''for whom''// anything is done is called an Indirect Object, and is always in the Dative.
# That the verb ''dat'' takes the Direct Object ''ūvam'' and the Indirect Object ''medicō''.
# That the passive verb ''datur'' retains the Indirect Object ''medicō''.
From these and similar facts is derived the following rule:
;Rule XII - Dative with Verbs
:The Indirect Object of an action is put in the Dative.
# You will observe:
## That in the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative, //templum// ends in //um// in the singular and in //a// in the plural.
## That in the other cases it is declined precisely like //dominus//.
<part 60>
''60.'' Vocabulary
|''dōnum''|''dōnī''|n|gift, present|//don//-ation|
|''oppidum''|''oppidī''|n|town, city|//don//-ation|
|''perīculum''|''perīculī''|n|danger, peril|//peril//|
|''praemium''|''praemiī''|n|reward, premium, prize|//premium//|
|''via''|''viae''|f|way, road, street|//way//^^1^^|

|''dat''|(he)^^2^^ gives|''datur''|(it)^^2^^ is given|
|''dant''|(they) give|''dantur''|(they) are given|
|''mōnstrat''|(he) shows, points out|mōnstrātur|(he) is shown|
|''mōnstrant''|(they) show, point out;|''mōnstrantur''|(they) are shown.^^3^^|
|''vītat''|(he) avoids, shuns|vītātur|(he) is avoided.^^4^^|
|''vītant''|(they) avoid, shun|''vītantur''|(they) are avoided.^^4^^|

# Latin, //via//, pronounced //wea//, English //way//.
# Remember that the subject in English is to be //he//, //she//, or //it//, as the sense shall require.
# Or //is pointed out, are pointed out.// The passive of course admits of meanings corresponding to all those found in the active, though for want of room only one is here given.
# Or //is shunned, are shunned.//
<part 61>
!!''61.'' Translate into English
# Quis Mārcō praemium dat? 
# Rēgīna Mārcō praemia dat. 
# Rēgīna Albertō medicō praemium dat. 
# Nōn-ne Titō praemium datur? 
# Titō praemia saepe dantur. 
# Nōn-ne Titus agricola servō dōnum dat? 
# Titus servīs dōna saepe dat. 
# Dōna servīs saepe dantur. 
# Quis Mārcō viam mōnstrat? 
# Servus Titī Mārcō viam mōnstrat. 
# Servus dominō viam mōnstrat. 
# Servī dominīs viam saepe mōnstrant. 
# Titus agricola perīculum semper vītat. 
# Nautae perīcula nōn semper vītant. 
# Perīcula nōn semper vītantur. 
# Nōn-ne Titus agricola puellae pirum dat? 
# Agricolae puellīs pira saepe dant. 
# Dōna puellās dēlectant. 
# Templum incolās oppidī dēlectat. 
# Incolae oppidī saepe dēlectantur. 
<part 62>
!!''62.'' Translate into Latin.
# Who gives a present to Titus? 
# Marcus gives a present to his friend Titus. 
# Who gives pears to the slaves? 
# Tullia often gives pears to the slaves. 
# Does not the gift delight the slaves? 
# Gifts always delight slaves. 
# The poet gives a present to his friend Marcus. 
# Does not the queen give presents to her friends? 
# Queens often give presents to their friends. 
# Are not presents often given to the poet? 
# Presents are often given to the poets. 
# Julia is pointing out the road to her friend Marcus. 
# Danger is not always avoided. 
# The inhabitants of the town praise the temple. 
# The temple is often praised. 
!A Dialogue - Richard and Henry
<part 68>
!!''68.'' Vocabulary
|''colloquium''|''colloquiī''^^1^^|n|dialogue, conversation|//colloqui//-al|
|''vīcus''|''vīcī''|m|village, ward||

|Proper Names|c
|''Aetna''|''Aetnae''|f|Ætna, Mount Ætna|//Ætna//|
|''Vesta''|''Vestae''|f|Vesta, goddess of the Roman household|//Vesta//|

|''certē''|adverb|certainly, surely|//cert//-ainly|
# The Genitive ends in //iī: colloquiī//.
# //Discipulus// means 'a pupil,' 'learner,' and //con-discipulus//, 'a fellow-pupil,' 'a school-mate.'
<part 69>
!''69.'' Colloquium
//Ricardus et Henrīcus, condiscipulī.//
Ricardus - Ubĭ^^1^^ est Ītalia?
Henrīcus - Ītalia in Eurōpā est.
R - Nōn-ne incolae Ītaliae habent oppida?
H - Oppida et vīcōs habent. Rōma in Ītaliā est.
R - Nōn-ne habent fundōs?
H - Habent fundōs et hortōs?
R - Nōn-ne sunt templa in oppidīs?
H - Certē. Sunt templa in oppidīs et in templīs statuae. Templum Vestae saepe laudātur.
R - Nōn-ne Iūlia in Ītaliā fundum habet?
H - Certē. Iūlia et Cornēlia fundōs in Ītaliā habent.
R - Ubĭ^^1^^ est Sicilia?
H - In Eurōpā est. Sicilia est īnsula. In Siciliā est Aetna.
R - Ubĭ^^1^^ est Graecia?
H - Graecia est in Eurōpā. Graecia est patria poētārum. Incolae Graeciae sunt poētae et agricolae et nautae.
R - Nōn-ne sunt oppida in Graeciā?
H - Certē sunt oppida et vīcī Graeciā.
R - Ubĭ^^1^^ est Corinthus?
H - Corinthus est in Graeciā.
# FIXME: The //i// in //Ubi// should have a macron-breve accent.
<part 70>
!''70.'' Translate the following questions and answer them in Latin.
# Ubī^^1^^ est Rōma?
# Ubī^^1^^ est fundus Iūliae?
# Nōn-ne incolae Graecia habent oppida?
# Nōn-ne sunt templa in Graeciā?
# Ubī^^1^^ sunt statuae?
# Nōn-ne in Ītaliā sunt oppida?
# FIXME: The //i// in //Ubi// should have a macron-breve accent.
!Adjectives in ''US'', in ''A'', and in ''UM''
<part 71>
''71.'' We have now learned the declension and use of three important classes of nouns:
# Nouns in ''us'', generally //masculine//.
# Nouns in ''a'', generally //feminine//.
# Nouns in ''um'', always //neuter//.
<part 72>
''72.'' Corresponding to these three classes of nouns are three forms of adjectives:
# A //masculine// form in ''us'', used only with masculine nouns.
# A //feminine// form in ''a'', used only with feminine nouns.
# A //neuter// form in ''um'', used only with neuter nouns.
Thus the three forms, ''māgnus'', ''māgna'', ''māgnum'', all mean //great, large//, but ''māgnus'' can be used only with //masculine// nouns, ''māgna'' with //feminine// nouns, and ''māgnum'' with //neuter// nouns; ''māgnus numerus'', //a large number;// ''māgna corōna'', //a large crown;// ''māgnum oppidum'', //a large town.//
<part 73>
''73.'' These adjectives are declined precisely like nouns of the same endings. Thus--
# ''Bonus'', //good//, is declined through all the cases of both numbers like //dominus//. Decline it in full.
# ''Bona'', //good//, is declined like //mēnsa//. Decline it in full.
# ''Bonum'', //good//, is declined like //templum//. Decline it in full.
Decline together the following nouns and adjectives:
# ''dominus bonus'', the good master
# ''rēgīna bona'', the good queen
# ''oppidum māgnum'', the large town
# ''medicus doctus'', the learned physician
# ''epistula longa'', a long letter
# ''templum māgnificum'', a magnificent temple.
<part 74>
''74.'' Examine the following examples:
|Servus bonus.|A good slave.|
|Servus est bonus.|The slave is good.|
|Servī bonī.|Good slaves.|
|Servī sunt bonī.|The slaves are good.|
|Servīs bonīs.|For good slaves.|
|Rēgīna est bona.|The queen is good.|
|Oppida sunt māgna.| The towns are large.|
In these examples, observe that the adjectives are all in the same //Gender//, //Number//, and //Case// as their nouns. This usage is expressed in the following
;Rule XXXIV. Agreement of Adjectives
:An adjective agrees with its noun in ''gender, number,'' and ''case''.
<part 68>
!!''68.'' Vocabulary
|''aureus, aurea, aureum''|golden, of gold||
|''beātus, beāta, beātum''|happy|//beat//-itude|
|''bonus, bona, bonum''|good||
|''clārus, clāra, clārum''|illustrious, famous||
|''doctus, docta, doctum''|learned|//doctor//|
|''fīdus, fīda, fīdum''|faithful, trustworthy|//fid//-elity|
|''īgnāvus, īgnāva, īgnāvum''|indolent, idle, lazy||
|''longus, longa, longum''|long|//long//|
|''māgnificus, māgnifica, māgnificum''|magnificent, splendid|//magnific//-end|
|''meus, mea, meum''^^1^^|my, mine||
|''multus, multa, multum''|much, many|//mult//-itude|
|''tuus, tua, tuum''|your, yours, thy, thine||
# The Vocative Singular masculine is //mī//.
<part 76>
!!''76.'' Translate into English
# Quis tuum amīcum laudat?
# Rēgīna bona meum amīcum laudat.
# Quis est tuus amīcus? Mārcus est meus amīcus.
# Nōn-ne amīcī tuī sunt fīdī? Meī amīcī semper sunt fīdī.
# Tullia multōs amīcōs habet.
# Quis epistulās exspectat? Iūlia epistulam longam exspectat.
# Epistula longa medicum doctum dēlectat.
# Nōn-ne tua corōna est aurea? Mea corōna nōn est aurea.
# Nōn-ne medicus est clārus? Est clārus.
# Medicus doctus praemium māgnum exspectat.
# Nōn-ne oppidum est māgnum? Est māgnum.
# Non-ne templa sunt māgnifica? Sunt māgnifica.
# Quis est beātus? Fīlia poētae est beāta.
# Quis est īgnāvus? Meus servus est īgnāvus.
# Bonae puellae semper sunt beātae.
<part 77>
!!''77.'' Translate into Latin.
# Are your servants faithful? My servants are faithful.
# Are not the towns large? They are large.
# Have not the towns large temples? The large towns have magnificent temples.
# Who is a good master? Titus, the farmer, is a good master.
# Who is expecting a large present? Julia is expecting large presents.
# Your friend, the poet, is expecting a large reward.
# Large rewards are often expected.
# The farmer gives many pears to your servants.
# In the large town are many statues.
# Where are the large temples? They are in the large towns.
# Are not your servants idle? They are often idle.
# The inhabitants of the town are always praising the good queen.
# The good queen gives many presents to the inhabitants of the town.
!Second declension -- Words in ''ER'' and ''IR'' -- Prepositions
<part 78>
''78.'' Nouns in ''er'' and ''ir'' of the second declension are declined as follows:
|||!Puer, //boy//|!Vir, //man//|!Ager, //field//|!Case endings|
''Note 1.'' Observe that the case endings are the same as in nouns in //us// ([[55|Lesson VII/55]]), but that the endings //us// and //e// are wanting in the nominative and vocative singular.
''Note 2.'' Note carefully the difference in declension between //puer// and //ager//. Most nouns in //er// are declined like //ager//.
<part 79>
''79.'' As some masculine nouns of this declension end in ''er'', so some adjectives have a masculine form in ''er'', while the feminine ends in ''a'' and the neuter in ''um'', as in //bonus//: ''līber, lībera, līberum'', //free//.

Decline in full, ''līber'' like //puer//, ''lībera'' like //mēnsa//; and ''līberum'' like //templum//. The declension will be given in full on page 47.(TODO)

Decline together ''puer līber'', //a free boy//; ''rēgīna misera'', //the unhappy queen//;, and ''oppidum līberum'', //a free town.//
# For this lesson learn //puer// and //vir//, and observe wherein they differ in declension from //dominus//.
<part 80>
''80.'' Examine the following sentences:
|Rēgīna ''ā (ab)'' poētā laudātur.| The queen is praised ''by'' the poet.|
|Rēgīna ''in'' hortō est.| The queen is ''in'' the garden.|
|Rēgīna ''cum'' Tulliā est.| The queen is ''with'' Tullia.|

Observe that ''ā, ab, in,'' and ''cum'' are prepositions, and that they are here all followed by the ablative. Prepositions are often thus used with the ablative, very much as prepositions are used with the objective case in English. Observe also--
# That the ablative with ''ā'' or ''ab'' answers the question, ''By whom?''
# That the ablative with ''in'' answers the question, ''Where? In what place?''
# That the ablative with ''cum'' answers the question, ''With whom?''
<part 81>
!''81.'' Vocabulary
|''gener, generī''|m|son-in-law||
|''puer, puerī''|m|boy|//puer//-ile|
|''socer, socerī''|m|father-in-law||
|''vir, virī''|m|man, true man, hero|//vir//-ile|

|''asper, aspera, asperum_''|rough, hard, harsh|//asper-//ity|
|''līber, lībera, līberum''|free|//liber//-ty|
|''miser, misera, miserum''|wretched, unhappy|//miser//-y|
|''tener, tenera, tenerum''|tender, young, delicate|//tender//|

|''avus, avī''|m|grandfather|
|''lūcus, lūcī''|m|grove, sacred grove|

|''ā'' or ''ab'', with ablative|by, from|
|''cum'', with ablative|with|
<part 82>
!''82.'' Translate into English
# Ubī est puer miser? Puer miser in hortō est?
# Puerī nōn saepe sunt miserī.
# Rēgīna puerum miserum amat. Puer miser ā rēgīnā amātur.
# Puerī miserī rēgīnam amant. Rēgīna ā puerīs miserīs amātur.
# Ubī est vir miser? Vir miser in lūcō est.
# Socer virī miserī est nauta.
# Nōn-ne Mārcus socerum laudat? Socerum semper laudat.
# Generī nōn semper ā socerīs laudantur.
# Nōn-ne generī Mārcī sunt miserī? Nōn sunt miserī.
# Meī amīcī generōs Mārcī laudant.
# Tuī servī puerō miserō viam mōnstrant.
# Nōn-ne poēta generum laudat? Poēta ā generō laudātur.
# Ubī sunt generī Mārcī? In hortō ambulant.
# Ubī sunt puerī? In hortō cum avō tuō sunt. Tuus avus ā puerīs amātur.
# Ubī sunt puellae? In lūcō cum Iūliā sunt.
# Nōn-ne oppidum est līberum? Est līberum. Multa oppida sunt lībera.
# Ubī est Titus? Ambulat cum amīcō poētā.
<part 83>
!''83.'' Translate into Latin.
# Do not the boys expect presents? They always expect presents.
# Who gives presents to the boys? Tullia gives many presents to boys.
# Does not Tullia love boys? She loves boys.
# The boys praise the sailor. The sailor is praised by the boys.
# The daughter of the poet loves her father-in-law.
# The daughters of Titus are loved by their father-in-law.
# Is not the road rough? Many roads are rough.
# The queen always avoids rough roads.
# Rough roads are not always avoided by farmers.
# Is not your daughter delicate? My daughters are delicate.
# Is not the man unhappy? Men are often unhappy.
# Titus is always praising his son-in-law.
# Titus is always praised by his son-in-law.
# Where is your daughter? She is with her father-in-law in the garden.
# The queen gives many presents to her sons-in-law.
!Second declension - Words in ''ER'' - Vocative
''Note.'' - Learn the declension of ''ager'', //field// ([[78|Lesson XII/78]]), and observe wherein it differs from //puer//.
<part 84>
''84.'' As some masculine nouns in ''er'' are declined like //ager//, so in some adjectives the masculine in ''er'' is declined in the same way, while the feminine in ''a'' is declined like //lībera, bona,// and //mēnsa//, and the neuter in ''um'' like //līberum, bonum,// and //templum//: ''ruber, rubra, rubrum'', //red//.

Decline in full, ''ruber'' like //ager//; ''rubra'' like //mēnsa//; and ''rubrum'' like //templum//. The declension will be given in full in [[103|Lesson XVI/103]].
Decline together ''ager pulcher'', //a beautiful field//; ''rēgīna pulchra'', //the beautiful queen//; and ''templum pulchrum'', //the beautiful temple//.
<part 85>
''85.'' Examine the following sentences:
|Epistula tua, ''Tite'', rēgīnam dēlectat.|//Your letter, ''Titus'', delights the queen.//|
|Epistula tua, ''Iūlia'', rēgīnam dēlectat.|//Your letter, ''Julia'', delights the queen.//|
In these examples observe that //Tite// and //Iūlia// designate ''the person addressed'', and that they are both in the ''vocative''. Hence we have the following rule:
; Rule IV. - Case of Address
: The name of the person or thing addressed is put in the Vocative.
<part 86>
!!''86.'' Vocabulary
|''magister''|''magistrī''|m|master, teacher|//master//|

|''aeger, aegra, aegrum''|sick, ill|
|''pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum''|beautiful|

|''discipulus''|''discipulī''|m|learner, pupil, scholar|//disciple//|

|Proper Names|c
|''Carolus, Carolī''|m|Charles|
|''Frederīcus, Frederīcī''|m|Frederick|
|''Homērus, Homērī''|m|Homer, the famous Greek poet|

|''timet''|(he) fears|''timētur''|(he) is feared|//timid//|
|''timent''|(they) fear|''timentur''|(they) are feared||
<part 87>
!!''87.'' Synonyms
''Dominus, magister;'' //master, teacher//
; ''Dominus''
: ''Master, owner, proprietor'' - as of a house, an estate, slaves, etc. See [[55|Lesson VII/55]].
; ''Magister''
: ''Master, director, teacher'' - especially the master or director of a school, a master of arts or of one or more departments of study, a teacher.
<part 88>
!!''88.'' Translate into English.
# Nōn-ne est liber pulcher? Liber est pulcher.
# Librī, Carole, sunt pulchrī.
# Ubī sunt librī pulchrī, Iūlia? Carolus librōs pulchrōs habet.
# Ubī, Carole, est magister? Magister in hortō ambulat.
# Nōn-ne magister est aeger? Est aeger.
# Magistrī nōn saepe sunt aegrī.
# Discipulī magistrō librum pulchrum dant.
# Nōn-ne pulchrum dōnum magistrum dēlectat? Magistrum dēlectat.
# Pulchra dōna magistrōs semper dēlectant.
# Nōn-ne discipulī magistrum laudant? Magistrum semper laudant.
# Magister ā bonīs discipulīs semper laudātur.
# Nōn-ne lūdī magistrum dēlectant? Lūdī puerōrum semper magistrōs dēlectant.
# Tua epistula, Frederīce, puerum miserum dēlectat.
# Nōn-ne servī dominum timent? Dominum timent.
# Rēgīna templum māgnificum laudat.
# Templum māgnificum ā rēgīnā laudātur.
# Titus agricola multōs equōs semper habet.
<part 89>
!!''89.'' Translate into Latin.
# Who has the book? The teacher has the beautiful book.
# Teachers always have beautiful books.
# Marcus, your daughter loves beautiful books.
# Titus, where are your daughters? They are now ill.
# Are your daughters often ill? They are not often ill.
# Are not the books beautiful? The books of the teacher are beautiful.
# Titus, the farmer, has beautiful fields.
# Beautiful fields are often praised by farmers.
# Your diligence, Charles, is praised by the teachers.
# Your letters, Julia, are beautiful.
# The daughters of the queen are beautiful.
# Homer, the famous poet, praises the beautiful daughters of the queen.
# The beautiful daughters of the queen are often praised by the poet.
# Where is Charles? He is in the garden with his teacher.
# Many slaves fear their masters.
# The boys are often praised by their teachers.
!Second Declension - Comparative View
<part 90>
''90.'' Compare the several examples in the following table
|Comparative View of the Second Declension|c
||!Declension|!Dominus, //master//|!Puer, //boy//|!Ager, //field//|!Templum, //temple//|
# Stem - In nouns of the second declension, the stem ends in ''o''.^^1^^
# Proper names in ''ius'' generally contract ''ie'' in the Vocative Singular into ''i'' without change of accent: ''Mercúri'' for ''Mercúrie'', //Mercury//. ''Fīlius'', //son//, also contracts ''fīlie'' into ''fīlī''.
# Locative - Names of towns, and a few other words, have a Locative (40,4) ending in ''ī'' in the singular and in ''īs'' in the plural; ''Corinthī'', //at Corinth//; ''domī'', //at home//; ''Delphīs'', //at Delphi//.
# In the Paradigms, the stems are //domino//, //puero//, //agro//, and //templo//, but the final ''o'' becomes ''u'' in the endings //us// and //um//, and ''e'' in //domine//. It disappears by contraction in the endings //a//, //i//, and //is//, and is dropped in the forms //puer// and //ager//.
<part 91>
''91.'' In the last three lessons observe carefully the endings of the adjectives, and compare them with the endings of the nouns with which these adjectives agree. You will find them absolutely identical, but an adjective of one ending may agree with a noun of a different ending. Thus, any masculine adjective, whether it ends in ''us'' or ''er'', may agree with any masculine noun, whether it ends in ''us'', ''er'', or ''a'': ''bonus servus'', //a good servant//; ''miser servus'', //an  unhappy servant//; ''bonus puer'', //a good boy//; ''pulcher puer'', //a beautiful boy//; ''bonus agricola'', //a good farmer//; ''miser agricola'', //an unhappy farmer//.
Decline together ''puer bonus'', //a good boy//; ''medicus miser'', //an unhappy physician//; ''clārus poēta'', //the renowned poet//.
<part 92>
!''92. Vocabulary''
|''niger'', ''nigra'', ''nigrum''|black, dark||
|''noster'', ''nostra'', ''nostrum''|our, ours||
|''ruber'', ''rubra'', ''rubrum''|red|//red//|
|''vester'', ''vestra'', ''vestrum''|your, yours||
|''Graecus'', ''Graeca'', ''Graecum''|Greek|//Greek//|
|''Latinus'', ''Latina'', ''Latinum''|Latin|//Latin//|
|''latus'', ''lata'', ''latum''|broad, wide||
|''novus'', ''nova'', ''novum''|new|new|

|''fossa'', ''fossae''|f|ditch, trench||
|''lingua'', ''linguae''|f|tongue, language|//lingua//-l|

|''erat''|(he, she, it) was|
|''erant''|(they) were|

<part 93>
!!''93.'' Translate into English
# Quis, meī amīcī, est vester medicus? Albertus est noster medicus. Est medicus clārus.
# Phīdippus est medicus doctus.
# Nōn-ne est Phīdippus servus? Est servus doctus. Phīdippus est medicus clārus et servus doctus.
# Quis erat Homērus? Homērus erat poēta clārus.
# Magistrī nostrī Homērum poētam clārum saepe laudant.
# Graecia est patria poētārum clārōrum.
# Nōn-ne est Ītalia vestra patria? Ītalia est nostra patria.
# In Ītaliā et in Graciā sunt multī poētae.
# Noster magister linguam Latīnam amat.
# Nōn-ne vester magister linguam Graecam laudat? Nostrī magistrī linguam Graecam saepe laudant.
# Nōn-ne puerī sunt īgnāvī? Nostrī puerī nōn sunt īgnāvī.
# Mārcus nōn est medicus doctus, sed poēta clārus.
# Nōn-ne fossae sunt lātae? Nōn sunt lātae.
# Carolus librum novum habet.
# Nōn-ne liber novus Carolum dēlectat? Librī novī puerōs semper dēlectant.
<part 94>
!!''94.'' Translate into Latin
# Does not our teacher love the boys? He loves good boys.
# Boys, are not your books new? Our books, Charles, are new and beautiful.
# Julia is a beautiful girl. She is the daughter of a famous poet.
# Where is our friend Charles? He is with Frederick in the grove.
# Does not Charles love books? He loves good books. Good boys always love good books.
# Good stories delight boys and girls.
# Boys and girls are always delighted with good stories.
# My friends, are not the horses of your physician black? Our physician is famous; he has many horses.
# The farmer's horses are red.
# Homer the famous poet, is often praised by teachers.
# Our teacher often praises Greece.
# Greece, the native land of poets, is often praised by our teachers.
! Third declension - stems in ''L, R, N''
<part 112>
''112.'' Nouns of this declension may be divided into two classes:
# Nouns whose stem ends in a //consonant//.^^1^^
# Nouns whose stem ends in ''I''.
# The stems of all other nouns in Latin end in a vowel.
<part 113>
!! Class 1. Consonant Stems
!!!''113.'' Stems in ''L, R, N''.

||''Cōnsul,'' m., //consul//|''Pāstor'', m., //shepherd//|''Passer'', m., //sparrow//|''Pater'', m., //father//|

||''Cōnsul,'' m., //consul//|''Pāstor'', m., //shepherd//|''Passer'', m., //sparrow//|''Pater'', m., //father//|

||''Leō,'' m., //lion//|''Virgō'', f., //maiden//|''Carmen'', n., //song, poem//| Case suffixes, m. and f.|Case suffixes, neuter|

||''Leō,'' m., //lion//|''Virgō'', f., //maiden//|''Carmen'', n., //song, poem//| Case suffixes, m. and f.|Case suffixes, neuter|

In the Paradigms observe--
# That the stems are //cōnsul, pāstōr, passer, pater, patr, leōn, virgon, virgin,// and //carmen, carmin.//^^2^^
# That in the Nominative and Vocative Singular the stem //pāstōr// shortens ''o'', while //leōn// and //virgon// drop ''n''.
# The dash implies that //suffix// is wating.
# That is, the stems of //pater, virgō,// and //carmen// appear in two forms: //pater, patr//; //virgon, virgin//; //carmen, carmin//.
!Dialogue -- Questions
<part 95>
!!''95.'' Examine the following sentences:
|1. Nōn ambulat.|//He is not walking//.|
|2. ''Nōn-ne'' ambulat?|//Is he ''not'' walking?//^^1^^|
|3. Ambulat.|//He is walking.//|
|4. Ambulat-''ne''?|//Is he ''walking''?//^^2^^|
|5. ''Num'' ambulat?|//''Is'' he walking?//|
In these sentences observe--
# That the negative sentence, //nōn ambulat//, is converted into a ''question'' by simply appending ''-ne'' to //nōn//, making ''nōn-ne'': //nōn-ne ambulat?// is he ''not'' walking?^^1^^
# That the affirmative sentence, //ambulat//, is converted into a ''question'' in two different ways: (1) by appending ''-ne'' to //ambulat//, just as in the negative sentence it is appended to //nōn//: //ambulat-ne?// is he ''walking?'' and (2) by placing ''num'' before //ambulat//: //num ambulat?// ''is'' he walking?
''Note 1.'' - In these three questions observe carefully the force of the different particles, ''-ne, nōn-ne,'' and ''num''. Practically in translation their force may be shown as follows:
# In rendering ''nōn-ne'' emphasize ''not'': //is he ''not'' walking?//
# In rendering ''-ne'' emphasize the participle or the main part of the verb: //is he ''walking''//, or //does he ''walk?''//^^2^^
# In rendering ''num'' emphasize the auxiliary, ''is'', ''does'', etc. : //''is'' he walking//, or //''does'' he walk?//^^3^^
# Remember that you have already had abundant illustrations of questions with //nōn-ne.//
# Observe that //-ne// has the same effect upon //ambulat// as upon //nōn//, i. e. it changes it to a //question.//
# It may be added that //-ne// simply converts a //statement// into a //question//, that //nōn-ne// expects the answer ''yes'', and that //num// expects the answer ''no.''.
<part 96>
''96.'' In the following sentences observe carefully the use and meaning of ''suōs'', //his, her, their.//
|Carolus ''suōs'' amīcōs amat.|//Charles loves ''his'' friends.//|
|Iūlia ''suōs'' amīcōs amat.|//Julia loves ''her'' friends.//|
|Puerī ''suōs'' amīcōs amant.|//The boys love ''their'' friends.//|
Observe that, in each of these three sentences, ''suōs'' refers to the ''subject'': in the first, to the ''subject'', ''Carolus'', and so means //his//; in the second, to ''Iūlia'', and so means //her//; and in the third, to ''puerī'', and so means //their.//^^1^^
# Observe also that //suōs//, like any other adjective, agrees with its noun //amīcōs//, and that its form is not affected by the gender or number of the subject to which it refers, but that its meaning is determined in part by the gender and number of that subject. If the subject is masculine and singular, //suus// means //his//, as in the first example; if the subject is feminine and singular, //suus// means //her//, as in the second example; if the subject is plural, //suus// means //their//, as in the third example.
<part 97>
!!''97.'' Vocabulary
|''albus, alba, album''|white||
|''-ne'' (enclitic)^^1^^|for meaning, see ''95, 4''.||
|''num''^^1^^|for meaning, see ''95, 5''.||
|''suus, sua, suum''|his, her, their; see ''96''||
|''valdē''|greatly, very, very much, exceedingly.||
|''valē''|farewell, good-bye|//vale//-dictory|
|''equitat''|(he, she, it) rides||
|''equitant''|(they) ride||
# //Num// and //-ne// are interrogative particles, used in questions; //-ne// is an enclitic, i. e., it is always appended to some other word: //ambulat-ne, nōn-ne//.
<part 98>
!!''98.'' Colloquium
Ricardus et Henrīcus, con-discipulī

Ricardus: Carolus, amīcus tuus, saepe in agris ambulat. Amat-ne agrōs.
Henrīcus: Multōs in agrīs habet equōs et equis^^1^^ valdē dēlectātur.
R: Mōnstrat-ne equōs suīs amīcīs?
H: Mōnstrat equōs amīcīs suīs, sed aliīs^^2^^ nōn mōnstrat.
R: Est-ne Mārcus Carolī amīcus?
H: Mārcus ā Carolō nōn laudātur.
R: Num Carolus Mārcō equōs mōnstrat?
H: Mārcō Carolus nōn mōnstrat equōs suōs.
R: Nigrī-ne sunt equī?
H: Sunt nigrī et pulchrī.
R: Habet-ne Titus agricola multōs equōs?
H: Habet multos et^^3^^ rubrōs equōs.
R: Nōn-ne equī tuī sunt albī?
H: Sunt albī.
R: Equitat-ne Carolus in agrīs?
H: Saepe equitat cum Phīdippō, servō suō.
R: Nōn-ne niger est Phīdippius?
H: Est niger, sed valdē amat dominum suum.
R: Valē, mī^^4^^ amīce; magister me exspectat.
# ''Equīs'', //with horses//; see 114, Ablative of Means.
# ''Aliīs'', //to others//; used substantively. For declension, see ''378''.
# Omit ''et'' in translating. Here the Latin requires a connective, but the English does not. ''Latin idiom:'' //many and red//, ''English idiom:'' //many red//. See ''119.''
# ''Mī'', vocative singular masculine of ''meus'', //my//.
<part 99>
!!''99''. Translate the following questions and answer them in Latin.^^1^^
# Ubī ambulat Carolus?
# Ubī habet Carolus equōs?
# Habet-ne pulchrōs equōs?
# Nōn-ne Carolus Mārcum laudat?
# Habet-ne Carolus servum?
# Niger-ne est servus?
# For the form and substance of the answer, see the colloquium. Put each answer in the form of a sentence. Thus: Carolus in agrīs ambulat.
!First and second declensions - Adjectives - Dative with Adjectives
<part 100>
''100.'' Some adjectives are partly of the first declension and partly of the second, while all the rest are entirely of the third declension.
!!First and second declensions: A and O stems
These paradigms of adjectives, although precisely like those of nouns, are placed here together for review and for reference.
<part 101>
!!!101. Bonus, bona, bonum, //good//.^^1^^

# ''Bonus'' is declined like //dominus// of Decl II ([[55|Lesson VII/55]]), ''bona'' like //mēnsa// of Decl. I ([[40|Lesson III/40]]), and ''bonum'' like //templum// of Decl. II ([[55|Lesson VII/55]]). The stems are //bono// in the Masc. and the Neut., and //bonā// in the Fem.
<part 102>
!!!102. Līber, lībera, līberum, //free//^^1^^

# ''Līber'' is declined like //puer//, ''lībera'' like //bona//; ''līberum'' like //bonum.//
<part 103>
!!!103. Ruber, rubra, rubrum, //red//^^1^^

# ''Ruber'' is declined like //ager//, ''rubra'' like //bona//, ''rubrum'' like //bonum//'. Most adjectives in //er// of this declension are declined like //ruber//. For adjectives declined like //līber//, see 81.
Note now the difference in declension between //līber// and //ruber// and observe:
- That the stem of //līber// is //lībero//, and that accordingly the //e// before //r// is carried through all the cases and genders.
- That the stem of //ruber// is not //rubero// but //rubro//, and that accordingly the //e// before //r// appears only in the nominative and vocative singular masculine, where it has been developed by the //r//, as //rubr// could not be easily pronounced.
<part 104>
!!104. Examine the following sentences:
|Patria ''Mārcō'' cāra est.|The native land is dear ''to Marcus''.|
|Dōnum ''puerō'' grātum est.|The gift is acceptable ''to the boy.''|
In these examples, observe that ''Mārcō'', //to Marcus//, and ''puerō'', //to the boy//, limit the adjectives, //cāra// and //grātum//, by answering the questions, //to whom// dear? //To whom// acceptable? Dear //to Marcus//, acceptable //to the boy.// A Dative thus limiting an adjective by answering the question //to// or //for whom?// or //to// or //for which?// is called an ''indirect object;'' see ''indirect object'' after verbs, ''[[59|Lesson VII/59]].'' For the Dative after adjectives, we have the following rule:
; Rule XIV. Dative with Adjectives
: Many adjectives take an ''indirect object'' in the ''dative.''
! Adjectives - Dative with Adjectives
<part 105>
!!''105.'' Vocabulary
|''altus, alta, altum''|high, lofty, deep|//alt//-itude|
|''Amerīca, ae'', //f.//|America|//America//|
|''Amerīcānus, Amerīcāna, Amerīcānum''|American|//American//|
|''Amerīcānī, Amerīcānōrum,'' //m. plur.//|the Americans||
|''mūrus'', ''ī'', //m.//|wall|//mur//-al|
|''verbum'', ''ī'', //n.//|word, verb|//verb//|

|Adjectives that take the dative|c
|''cārus, cāra, cārum''|dear, precious||
|''grātus, grāta, grātum''|acceptable, welcome|//grate//-ful.|
|''iūcundus, iūcunda, iūcundum''|pleasing, agreeable, delightful, interesting||
|''nōtus, nōta, nōtum''|known|//know//|

<part 106>
!!''106.'' Synonyms
!!! ''Grātus, iūcundus''; //acceptable, agreeable//
; ''Grātus''
: acceptable, welcome - especially because of value or worth
; ''Iūcundus''
: pleasing, agreeable, delightful, interesting
''Note'': //Grātus// implies that the object to which it is applied is acceptable because of its value, whether agreeable or not; //iūcundus//, that it is in itself agreeable.
!!! ''Nunc, iam''; //now, already//
; ''Nunc''
: Now, at the present time
; ''Iam''
: Already, by this time, ere now
<part 107>
!!''107.'' Translate into English.
# Est-ne Ītalia poētīs cāra? Multīs poētīs est cāra.
# Graecia, patria poētārum clārōrum, nostrō magistrō cāra est.
# Tua epistula, Iūlia, puellīs miserīs erat grāta.
# Nōn-ne perīcula nautīs interdum sunt grāta? Nunquam sunt iūcunda.
# Multae fābulae iam sunt discipulīs nostrīs nōtae.
# Magistrīs nostrīs fābulae poētārum Graecōrum sunt nōtae.
# Num verba dominī servīs semper sunt iūcunda? Servīs nōn semper sunt iūcunda.
# Quis magistrō semper est cārus? Discipulī bonī magistrīs semper sunt cārī.
# Ubī sunt templa pulchra? In oppidō sunt multa templa.
# Altus-ne est mūrus? Nōn est altus.
# Est-ne fossa alta? Fossa nōn est alta, sed lāta.
# Ubī est Carolus? Hodiē in oppidō est.
# Est-ne vester medicus Americānus? Noster medicus est Americānus. Multī Amerīcānī sunt clārī medicī.
<part 108>
!!''108.'' Translate into Latin.
# Is not Greece dear to our poet? Greece is dear to many poets.
# Boys, is not America your native land? It is our native land.
# America, our native land, is dear to the boys.
# Is not America the native land of a famous poet? It is the native land of many poets.
# Your gifts, Tullia, were acceptable to the boys.
# Was not the gift acceptable to your friend? It was acceptable. Beautiful gifts are always acceptable to friends.
# Girls, your gifts were acceptable to your grandfather.
# The words of the teacher were agreeable to the pupils.
# Were the pears acceptable to the boy? Pears and apples are always acceptable to boys and girls.
# The diligence of the pupils is pleasing to the teachers.
# Are not stories pleasing to the pupils? Good stories are always pleasing to the pupils.
! A short story
<part 109>
!!''109.'' Vocabulary
|''aqua, aquae'', //f.//|water|//aqua//-tic|
|''fuga, fugae'', //f.//|flight|//fug//-itive|
|''taurus, taurī'', //m.//|bull, bullock||

|''īnstat''|(he) is at hand, pursues|//instant//|
|''intrat''|(he) enters|//enter//|
|''līberat''|(he) liberates, frees|//liberate//|
|''mandat''|(he) commits, intrusts||
|''spectat''|(he) looks at, watches|//specta//-cle|
|''tentat''|(he) tries, attempts|//tenta//-tive|
|''terminat''|(he) bounds, limits|//terminate//|
|''videt''|(he) sees|pro-//vide//|

|''forte'', //adverb//|by chance, accidentally|
|''sē'' (accusative)|himself|
<part 110>
!!''110.'' Story about an idle boy
Albertus, īgnāvus puer, linguam Latīnam nōn amat. Ā magistrō nōn laudātur; ā discipulīs nōn amātur. Magistrum suum saepe vītat et in agrīs ambulat. Est nunc in agrīs avī. Māgnus taurus iam puerum videt. Albertus fugam tentat; taurus īnstat.

Forte lāta fossa agrum terminat. Miser puer sē aquae mandat.^^1^^ Aqua nōn est alta,^^2^^, sed taurus perīculum aquae timet. Spectat^^3^^ Albertum, sed agricola agrum forte intrat et puerum miserum līberat.
# ''Sē aquae mandat'', //commits himself to the water//. i.e., throws himself into the water. ''Sē'', accusative, direct object of //mandat//; ''aquae'', dative, indirect object of //mandat//. See [[59|Lesson VIII/59]].
# What is the meaning of //alta// in this sentence? What other meaning has this word? See [[105|Lesson XVII/105]].
# Note the difference in meaning between //videt// and //spectat//.
<part 111>
!!''111.'' Translate the following questions and answer them in Latin.
# Num Albertus est bonus puer?
# Num magister Albertum laudat?
# Amant-ne discipulī Albertum?
# Ubī saepe ambulat Albertus?
# Nōn-ne Albertus māgnum taurum timet?
# Num lingua Latīna ab Albertō saepe laudātur?
# Num īgnāvī discipulī ā magistrīs saepe laudantur?
! Third declension - Stems in ''L'' and ''R'' - Ablative of means
<part 114>
!!''114.'' Examine the following sentences:
| Puerī puellās terrent. | The boys are frightening the girls. |
| Puellae ''ā puerīs'' terentur. | The girls are frightened ''by the boys.'' |
| Dōna puellās dēlectant. | The gifts delight the girls. |
| Puellae dōnīs dēlectantur. | The girls are delighted ''with the gifts.''|
In these examples observe--
# That in passing from the ''active'' to the ''passive'' construction-
## That which is the ''object'' of the //active//, ''puellās'', changed to the ''nominative'', ''puellae'', becomes the ''subject'' of the //passive//.
## That which is the ''subject'' of the ''active'', ''puerī, dōna'', is put in the ''ablative'', with the preposition ''ā'' or ''ab'' if it denotes persons, ''ā puerīs''; but without a preposition if it denotes things, ''dōnīs.''
# That ''ā puerīs'' answers the question ''By whom?'' (see [[80, 1|Lesson XII/80]]), and denotes the ''agent'' of the action; while ''dōnīs'' answers the question ''By what? With what?'' and denotes the ''means'' or ''instrument.'' Hence the following rule:
; Rule XXV - Ablative - Agent and Means
: The ''Agent'' of an action is denoted by the Ablative with ''ā'' or ''ab''.
: The ''Instrument'' and ''Means'' are denoted by the Ablative without the preposition.
<part 115>
!!''115.'' Vocabulary
|''Caesar, Caesaris'', //m.//|Caesar^^1^^||
|''Hannibal, Hannibalis'', //m.//|Hannibal^^2^^||
|''clāmor, clāmōris'', //m.//|shout, shouting, cry|//clamor//|
|''imperātor, imperātōris,'' //m.//|commander, general|//emperor//|
|''mercātor, mercātōris,'' //m.//|merchant, trader|//merchant//|
|''ōrātor, ōrātōris,'' //m.//|orator|//orator//|
|''praeceptor, praeceptōris'', //m.//|instructor, preceptor|//preceptor//|
|''soror, sorōris'', //f.//|sister||
|''vīctor, vīctōris'', //m.//|conqueror, victor|//victor//|
|''frāter, frātris'', //m.//|brother|//frater//-nal|
|''māter, mātrīs'', //f.//|mother|//mater//-nal|
|''mulier, mulieris'', //f.//|woman||

|''fuit''|(he) was||||
|''fuērunt''|(they) were)||||
|''terret''|(he) frightens, terrifies|''terrēt//ur//''|(he) is frightened, is terrified|//terrify//|
|''terrent''|(they) frighten, terrify|''terrent//ur//''|(they) are frightened, are terrified||
# The famous author, general, and statesman
# The Carthiginian general
<part 116>
!!''116.'' Synonyms
!!! ''Magister, praeceptor''; master, teacher, instructor
; Magister
: Master, director, teacher - especially the master or director of a school, a master of arts or of one or more departments of knowledge, a teacher
; Praeceptor
: Teacher, instructor, preceptor, guide - especially one who by //precept// and //counsel// instructs and trains the young for future usefulness, an ''instructor'' or ''preceptor.''^^1^^
# Any efficient teacher may be designated by either or both of these terms.
<part 117>
!!''117.'' Translate into English
# Quis fuit Caesar? Nōn-ne fuit imperātor? Caesar clārus imperātor fuit.
# Nōn-ne praeceptor vester Caesarem interdum laudat? Caesar ā praeceptōre nostrō saepe laudātur.
# Nōn-ne librī pulchrī ōrātōrem dēlectant? Ōrātor libris^^1^^ pulchrīs dēlectātur.
# Quis Hannibalem, clārum imperatōrem, hodiē laudat? Hannibal, clārus imperātor, interdum ab ōrātōribus laudātur.
# Nōn-ne verba ōrātōris mercātōrēs dēlectant? Mercātōrēs verbīs^^2^^ ōrātōris dēlectantur.
# Terrent-ne nautae mulierem clāmōribus? Mulier clāmōribus nautārum terrētur.
# Nōn-ne poētae vīctōrēs semper laudant? Victōrēs clārī ā poētīs semper laudantur.
# Nōn-ne lūdī puerōrum interdum praeceptōrēs dēlectant? Praeceptōrēs saepe lūdis puerōrum dēlectantur.
# Fuērunt-ne ōrātōrēs in Graeciā? In Graeciā fuērunt clārī ōrātōrēs.
# Fuit-ne epistula mea frātri tuō grāta? Epistula tua frātrī meō grāta fuit.
# Quis fuit Homērus? Fuit-ne ōrātor? Homērus fuit clārus poēta.
# Non-ne Iūlia ā mātre amātur? Amātur. Mātrēs fīliās semper amant.
# //Librīs//, ablative of means; see 114.
# Verbīs, why in the //Ablative?// See 114.
<part 118>
!!''118.'' Translate into Latin
# Are the merchant's stories interesting? They are very interesting to our boys.
# Do your sisters love books? They are always delighted with books.^^1^^
# Does not Julia sometimes give books to your sister? She often gives books to my sister.
# Who was the conqueror? Caesar, the famous general, was the conqueror.
# Do not the conquerors by their shouts, sometimes terrify the women? Women are often terrified by the shouts of the conquerors.
# Do not the games of the boys sometimes please their sisters? The girls are often pleased with the games of their brothers.
# Are your brothers merchants? They are not merchants, but teachers.
# Were there merchants in Italy? There were famous merchants in Italy.
# Presents are often given to the daughter of the general.
# The daughters of the orator are delighted with their presents.
# In what case will you put the Latin word? See 114.
! Third declension - Stems in ''N''
<part 119>
''119.'' Observe the following ''idiomatic use'' of ''multī'' in combination with other adjectives:
|Multī ''et'' māgnī labōrēs|Many great labors|
|Multae ''et'' māgnae īnsulae|Many large islands|
|Multa ''et'' pulchra templa|Many beautiful temples|

|!Latin Idiom|!English Idiom|
|Many and great|Many great|
|Many and beautiful|Many beautiful|

''Note'' - To this general usage there are numerous exceptions; especially when the noun stands between the two adjectives:
|Multī cīvēs Rōmānī|Many Roman citizens|
|Multī virī fortēs|Many brave men|
|Multī virī bonī|Many good men|
<part 120>
!!''120.'' Vocabulary
|''Cicerō, Cicerōnis'', //m.//|Cicero, the Roman orator||
|''ōrātiō, ōrātiōnis'', //f.//|oration|//oration//|
|''sermō, sermōnis'', //m.//|discourse, conversation|//sermon//|
|''homō, hominis'', //m.//^^1^^|man, a human being; see 121|//human//|
|''facētus, facēta, facētum''|witty, facetious|//facet//-ious|
|''Rōmānus, Rōmāna, Rōmānum''|Roman||
|''Vergilius, Vergiliī'', //m.//|Vergil, the Roman poet|
|''quem?'' //m.//^^2^^|whom?||
|''quid?'' //n.//^^2^^|what?||
!!! Footnotes
# It is not deemed necessary to repeat in the vocabularies the words used in the paradigms except for special reasons. //Carmen// is accordingly here omitted.
# //Quem// and //quid// are in the accusative singular, masculine, and neuter of //quis//, who? See [[47|Lesson V/47]].
<part 121>
!!''121.'' Synonyms
''Homō, vir;'' //man, hero//
; Homō
: Man, a human being - the ordinary word for man
; Vir
: Man, a true man, hero - a term of respect. See [[81|Lesson XII/81]].
<part 122>
!!''122.'' Translate into English
# Quid legit Carolus? Carolus, noster amīcus, ōrātiōnem Cicerōnis legit.
# Nōn-ne discipulī librōs Caesaris interdum legunt? Librī Caesaris ā discipulīs saepe leguntur.
# Multa et māgna oppida puerīs sunt nōta.
# Praeceptor multōs et bonōs librōs habet.
# In Graeciā sunt multa et pulchra templa.
# Quis fuit Cicerō? Cicerō fuit clārus ōrātor Rōmānus.
# Quem laudant vestrī praeceptōrēs? Cicerōnem ōrātōrem Rōmānum interdum laudant.
# Fuit-ne Vergilius poēta? Vergilius clārus poēta Rōmānus fuit.
# Nōn-ne puellae carmina Vergiliī interdum legunt? Carmina Vergiliī ā puellīs saepe leguntur.
# Nōn-ne puellae carminibus Vergiliī dēlectantur? Valdē dēlectantur.
# Quid hodiē legit Iūlia? Carmina Homērī poētae legit. Carminibus Homērī dēlectātur.
# Num hominēs doctī ōrātiōnēs Cicerōnis legunt? Ōrātiōnēs clārī ōrātōris Rōmānī ā multīs virīs doctīs leguntur.
# Nōn-ne multī hominēs perīcula timent? Perīcula ā multīs hominibus timentur.
# Quem dēlectat sermō facētus? Poētae sermōne facētō semper dēlectantur.
# Doctī hominēs sermōnibus facētīs saepe dēlectantur.
<part 123>
!!''123.'' Translate into Latin.
# Are the poems of Virgil interesting? They are very interesting to boys and girls.
# Charles, what is your sister reading to-day? She is reading a Latin poem.
# Do not the songs of Homer delight our poets? Our poets are delighted with the songs of Homer.
# Do learned men often praise the poems of Homer? The poems of Homer are always praised by learned men.
# Do your pupils read the orations of Cicero, the famous Roman orator? the orations of Cicero are always read by our pupils.
# What always pleases your instructors? Our instructors are always pleased with the diligence of their pupils.
# Does not Cicero the orator often praise good men? Good men are often praised by the famous orator.
# Are learned men always witty? They are sometimes witty.
# Was not the great poet's conversation often witty? It was often witty.
# Julia is always delighted with witty conversations.
! A father's letter
<part 124>
!!''124.'' Vocabulary
|''annus, annī'', //m.//|year|//annu//-al|
|''fīlius, fīliī'', //m.//|son; see [[90, 2|Lesson XIV/90]]|//fili//-al|
|''industrius, a, um''^^1^^|diligent, industrious|//industrious//|
|''studiōsē''|studiously, zealously|//studious//-ly|
|''tē''|thee, you (as object)|//thee//|

|''scrībit''|(he) writes|''scrībitur''|(it) is written|//scribe//|
|''scrībunt''|(they) write|''scrībuntur''|(they) are written||
|''valet''|(he) is well, is strong|||//val//-iant|
|''valent''|(they) are well, are strong||||
|''valē''|farewell, be well||||

# Here //a// and //um// are the Nominative endings of the Feminine and Neuter forms. Thus, //industrius, industria, industrium//. In subsequent vocabularies the Feminine and Neuter forms in adjectives of this class will thus be indicated by the endings.
<part 125>
!!''125.'' A father's letter to his boy at school
Epistula magistrī tuī, Carole, mī filī, mē valdē delectat; nam dīligentiam tuam laudat. Magister scrībit: "Tuus fīlius Carolus est bonus puer et industrius discipulus. Linguam Latīnam amat; fābulīs Latīnīs dēlectātur. Ā puerīs amātur et ā praeceptōribus laudātur. Praeceptōrēs Carolō praemia saepe dant. Carolus semper est beātus. Valē."
Tuus avus hodiē est aeger. Tē amat et tuās epistulās semper laudat. Tua soror Iūlia hodiē beāta est; nam decem annōs habet^^1^^; suam mātrem cāram amat. Tē exspectat. Tuī frātrēs valent; Mārcus librīs dēlectātur, equīs Frederīcus. Mārcus multōs librōs habet; carmina Vergiliī semper laudat. Nunc ōrātiōnēs Cicerōnis studiōsē legit.
Māter tē amat.^^2^^ Valē.
# Literally, //she has ten years//, i.e. is ten years old.
# Literally, //loves you// = sends love.
<part 126>
!!''126.'' Translate the following questions and answer them in Latin.
# Quis dīligentiam Carolī laudat?
# Nōn-ne discipulī Carolum amant?
# Nōn-ne fābulae Latīnae Carolum dēlectant?
# Dēlectant-ne tē fābulae Latīnae?
# Quem dēlectant equī?
# Nōn-ne librī Mārcum dēlectant?
# Quis est Mārcus?
! Third declension
<part 127>
!!''127.'' Stems ending in ''S''
||Flōs, m., //flower//|Iūs, n., //right//|Opus, n., //work//|Corpus, n., //body//|

||Flōs, m., //flower//|Iūs, n., //right//|Opus, n., //work//|Corpus, n., //body//|
In the Paradigms observe that the stems are //flōs, iūs, opus, oper,^^1^^// and //corpus, corpor.//^^1^^
# That is, the stems of //opus// and //corpus// appear in the form of //opus// and //corpus// in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular, and in the form //oper// and //corpor// in the other cases.
<part 128>
!!''128.'' Vocabulary
|''genus, generis'', //n.//^^1^^|race, kind, class|//gener//-al|
|''mōs, mōris'', //m.//|custom|//mor//-als|
|''mōrēs'', //plur.//|custom, manners, character||
|''tempus, temporis'', //n.//|time, season|//tempor//-al|
|''tempora'', //plur.//|the times, times||
|''color, colōris'', //m.//|color|//color//|
|''odor, odōris'', //m.//|odor, perfume|//odor//|
|''scrīptor, scrīptōris'', //m.//|writer, author|//script//-ure|
|''Germānī, Germānōrum'', //m. plur.//|the Germans||
|''Tacitus, Tacitī'', //m.//|Tacitus, Roman historian||
|''antīquus, a, um,''^^2^^|ancient, old|//antique//|
|''ēgregius, a, um''|remarkable, excellent|//egregious//|
|''varius, a, um''|various, different|//various//|

|''ōrnat''|(he) adorns, decorates, furnishes|''ōrnātur''|(he) is adorned, is decorated, is furnished|//orna//-ment|
|''ōrnant''|(they) adorn, decorate, furnish|''ōrnantur''|(they) are adorned, are decorated, are furnished||
# For the omission of //opus// and //flōs// in this vocabulary, see foot-note to [[120|Lesson XXI/120]].
# For //antīquus, antīqua, antīquum//, see foot-note to [[123|Lesson XXI/123]].
<part 129>
!!''129.'' Translate into English
# Ubī sunt, puerī, vestrī flōrēs pulchrī? In nostrō hortō sunt multī flōrēs pulchrī.
# Tuī flōrēs, mī fīlī, mātrem tuam dēlectant. Māter tua flōribus pulchrīs semper dēlectātur.
# Est-ne odor flōrum iūcundus? Variī sunt odōrēs flōrum; multī flōrēs iūcunum odōrem habent.
# Flōrēs pulchrī sorōrī tuae, Alberte, semper sunt grātī.
# Quis bonōs puerī mōrēs laudat? Mōrēs puerī ā praeceptōribus semper laudantur.
# Bonī mōrēs ab hominibus bonīs semper laudantur.
# Mōrēs discipulōrum praeceptōribus sunt nōtī.
# Nōn-ne multī hominēs mōrēs antīquōs amant? Mōrēs antīquī ā multīs scrīptōribus laundantur.
# Quis fuit Tacitus? Tacitus fuit doctus scrīptor Rōmānus.
# Nōn-ne Tacitus antīquōs Germānōs laudat? Mōrēs antīquōrum Germānōrum ā Tacitō valdē laudantur.
# Num puerī opera Tacitī legunt? Opera Tacitī nōn ā puerīs sed ab hominibus doctīs leguntur.
# Carolus sorōrī suae corōnam flōrum dat.
# Nōn-ne puellae flōribus templum ōrnant? Templa flōribus saepe ōrnantur.
<part 130>
!!''130.'' Translate into Latin
# Who is reading the works of Cicero? My brother is now reading the orations of Cicero.
# Do many men praise the works of Tacitus? The works of Tacitus are greatly praised by many famous authors.
# Who loves flowers? Cornelia is always delighted with beautiful flowers.
# Are not flowers always acceptable gifts? They are always acceptable to girls.
# Are there many flowers in your garden? Our garden is often adorned with flowers.
# Is not Julia pleased with the color of flowers? The colors of flowers are various.
# Are there many kinds of flowers? There are many kinds in the gardens and fields.
# What are your pupils now reading? They are now reading the works of Vergil.
# Many men are always praising ancient times and ancient customs.
# Our poets are delighted with the remarkable works of Homer.
!Third declension - stems ending in B or P, D or T
<part 131>
!!Stems ending in ''B'' or ''P'', ''D'' or ''T''
||Prīnceps, m., //a chief//|Lapis, m., //stone//|Aetās, f., //age//|

||Prīnceps, m., //a chief//|Lapis, m., //stone//|Aetās, f., //age//|

||Mīles, m., //a soldier//|Virtūs, f., //virtue//|Caput, n., //head//|

||Mīles, m., //a soldier//|Virtūs, f., //virtue//|Caput, n., //head//|
In these Paradigms observe--
# That the stems are //prīncep, prīncip,^^1^^, lapid, aetāt, mīlet,^^1^^, mīlit, nepōt, virtūt,// and //caput, capit//.^^1^^
# That with the exception of the //neuter// ''caput''^^1^^ they all take the suffix ''s'' in the nominative and vocative singular: //prīncep, prīncep-s//; //lapid, lapid-s, lapis//^^2^^; and that in all the other casses they are declined like //cōnsul, passer//, etc., already learned.^^3^^
# That the neuter ''caput'' is declined like the neuter //carmen//.^^3^^
# See footnote to [[127|Lesson XXIII/127]].
# The dental-//d// or //t//-is dropped before //s// for the sake of euphony; //lapis// for //lapids//, //aetās// for //aetāts//, //mīles// for //mīlets//, //virtūs// for //virtūts//.
# The learner should carefully note these facts.
<part 132>
!!''132.'' Vocabulary
|''cīvitās, cīvitātis'', //f.//|state||
|''lībertās, lībertātis'', //f.//|freedom, liberty|//liberty//|
|''eques, equitis'', //m.//|horseman, trooper, knight|//eques//-trian|
|''equitēs'', //plur.//|horseman, cavalry, knights||
|''hospes, hospitis'', //m.// and //f.//|guest, visitor|//hospit//-able|
|''prīnceps, prīncipis'', //m.//| chieftain, leader, prince|//prince//|
|''cūstōs, cūstōdis'', //m.//|keeper, guard, guardian|//custod//-ian|
|''nepōs, nepōtis'', //m.//|grandson||
|''laus, laudīs'', //f.//|praise, commendation|//laud//|
|''salūs, salūtis,'' //f.//|safety|//salut//-ary|
|''virtūs, virtūtis,'' //f.//|virtue, valor, bravery|//virtue//|
|''belum, ī'', //n//|war||
|''fortiter'', //adv.//|bravely, valiantly|//forti//-tude|

|''pūgnat''|(he, she, it) fights|//pugna//-cious|
|''pūgnant''|(they) fight||
<part 133>
!!''133.'' Translate into English
# Quid legunt tuī nepōtēs? Ēgregia Homēri carmina nunc legunt.
# Praeceptōrēs dīligentiam nepōtum tuōrum laudant.
# Praemia nepōtibus tuīs ā praeceptōribus saepe dantur.
# Ēgregia virtūs vestra, mīlitēs, ab imperātōre saepe laudātur.
# Laudat-ne imperātor virtūtem nostrōrum equitum? Ēgregiam equitum virtūtem semper laudat.
# Nōn-ne laudēs hominibus grātae sunt? Multī hominēs laudibus dēlectantur.
# Nōn-ne Cicerō saepe mīlitēs Rōmānōs laudat? Mīlitēs Rōmānī ā Cicerōne saepe laudantur.
# Nōn-ne mīlitēs Rōmānī fortiter pūgnant? Nostrī mīlitēs fortiter pūgnant.
# Bellum mīlitibus vestrīs grātum est.
# Habet-ne prīnceps multōs equōs? Habet equōs multōs et pulchrōs. Principēs semper pulchrōs equōs habent.
# Nōn-ne līberae sunt nostrae cīvitātēs? Līberae sunt; nam Amerīcānīlībertātem amant.
# Habet-ne rēgīna hodiē multōs hospitēs? Habet. Rēgīna semper hospitēs habet.
<part 134>
!!''134'.'' Translate into Latin
# Was not my father your guest? Your brothers were my guests.
# Does not the queen sometimes give beautiful presents to her guests? Magnificent presents are sometimes given to the guests of the queen.
# Are the keepers of your garden always faithful? They are always faithful.
# Where are your grandsons? They are in the garden. They are delighted with the flowers.
# Is your state free? Our states are free and happy.
# Are the guardians of our liberties faithful? They are good and faithful, for they love liberty.
# The safety of the state was dear to Cicero, the famous orator.
# Is not war sometimes acceptable to your soldiers? War is often acceptable to our cavalry.
# Father, who was Vergil? Vergil, my son, was the prince of Roman poets.
# Does not Vergil often praise the bravery of soldiers? The remarkable bravery of soldiers is often praised by the poet.
if(!version.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin) { //# ensure that the plugin is only installed once
version.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin = { installed: true };

if(!config.extensions) { config.extensions = {}; }

config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin = {
	heading: "Search Results",
	containerId: "searchResults",
	btnCloseLabel: "Close search",
	btnCloseTooltip: "dismiss search results",
	btnCloseId: "search_close",
	btnOpenLabel: "Open all search results",
	btnOpenTooltip: "Open all search results",
	btnOpenId: "search_open",

	displayResults: function(matches, query) {
		story.refreshAllTiddlers(true); // update highlighting within story tiddlers
		var el = document.getElementById(this.containerId);
		query = '"""' + query + '"""'; // prevent WikiLinks
		if(el) {
		} else { //# fallback: use displayArea as parent
			var container = document.getElementById("displayArea");
			el = document.createElement("div");
			el.id = this.containerId;
			el = container.insertBefore(el, container.firstChild);
		var msg = "!" + this.heading + "\n";
		if(matches.length > 0) {
				msg += "''" + config.macros.search.successMsg.format([matches.length.toString(), query]) + ":''\n";
			this.results = [];
			for(var i = 0 ; i < matches.length; i++) {
				msg += "* [[" + matches[i].title + "]]\n";
		} else {
			msg += "''" + config.macros.search.failureMsg.format([query]) + "''\n"; // XXX: do not use bold here!?
		wikify(msg, el);
		createTiddlyButton(el, "[" + this.btnCloseLabel + "]", this.btnCloseTooltip, config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin.closeResults, "button", this.btnCloseId);
		if(matches.length > 0) { // XXX: redundant!?
			createTiddlyButton(el, "[" + this.btnOpenLabel + "]", this.btnOpenTooltip, config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin.openAll, "button", this.btnOpenId);

	closeResults: function() {
		var el = document.getElementById(config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin.containerId);
		config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin.results = null;
		highlightHack = null;

	openAll: function(ev) {
		story.displayTiddlers(null, config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin.results);
		return false;

// override Story.search()
Story.prototype.search = function(text, useCaseSensitive, useRegExp) {
	var macronPattern = /[āĀēĒīĪōŌūŪ]/;
  var s = text;
	// Deal with bold and italics in the middle of words
	s = s.replace(/(.)/g, "['/]*$1");
	if (!s.match(macronPattern)) {
		// Replace the vowels with the corresponding macron matchers
		s = s.replace(/a/, "[aāĀA]");
		s = s.replace(/e/, "[eēĒE]");
		s = s.replace(/i/, "[iīĪI]");
		s = s.replace(/o/, "[oōŌO]");
		s = s.replace(/u/, "[uūŪU]");
	var searchRegexp = new RegExp(s, "img");
	highlightHack = searchRegexp;
	var matches = store.search(searchRegexp, null, "excludeSearch");
	config.extensions.MacronSearchPlugin.displayResults(matches, text);

// override TiddlyWiki.search() to ignore macrons when searching
TiddlyWiki.prototype.search = function(s, sortField, excludeTag, match) {
		// Find out if the search string s has a macron
		var candidates = this.reverseLookup("tags", excludeTag, !!match);
		var matches = [];
		for(var t = 0; t < candidates.length; t++) {
				if (candidates[t].title.search(s) != -1 ||
						candidates[t].text.search(s) != -1) {
		return matches;

} //# end of "install only once"
[[Table of Contents]]
[[Lesson I]]
[[Lesson II]]
[[Lesson III]]
[[Lesson IV]]
[[Lesson V]]
[[Lesson VI]]
[[Lesson VII]]
[[Lesson VIII]]
[[Lesson IX]]
[[Lesson X]]
[[Lesson XI]]
[[Lesson XII]]
[[Lesson XIII]]
[[Lesson XIV]]
[[Lesson XV]]
[[Lesson XVI]]
[[Lesson XVII]]
[[Lesson XVIII]]
[[Lesson XIX]]
[[Lesson XX]]
[[Lesson XXI]]
[[Lesson XXII]]
[[Lesson XXIII]]
[[Lesson XXIV]]
[[Lesson XXV]]
[[Lesson XXVI]]
[[Lesson XXVII]]
[[Lesson XXVIII]]
[[Lesson XXIX]]
[[Lesson XXX]]
|<html><a name="Top"/></html>''Name:''|PartTiddlerPlugin|
|''Version:''|1.0.9 (2007-07-14)|
|''Author:''|UdoBorkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|
|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license]]|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.0.4+; InternetExplorer 6.0|
!Table of Content<html><a name="TOC"/></html>
* <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Description',null, event)">Description, Syntax</a></html>
* <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Applications',null, event)">Applications</a></html>
** <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('LongTiddler',null, event)">Refering to Paragraphs of a Longer Tiddler</a></html>
** <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Citation',null, event)">Citation Index</a></html>
** <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('TableCells',null, event)">Creating "multi-line" Table Cells</a></html>
** <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Tabs',null, event)">Creating Tabs</a></html>
** <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Sliders',null, event)">Using Sliders</a></html>
* <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Revisions',null, event)">Revision History</a></html>
* <html><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Code',null, event)">Code</a></html>
!Description<html><a name="Description"/></html>
With the {{{<part aPartName> ... </part>}}} feature you can structure your tiddler text into separate (named) parts. 
Each part can be referenced as a "normal" tiddler, using the "//tiddlerName//''/''//partName//" syntax (e.g. "About/Features").  E.g. you may create links to the parts (e.g. {{{[[Quotes/BAX95]]}}} or {{{[[Hobbies|AboutMe/Hobbies]]}}}), use it in {{{<<tiddler...>>}}} or {{{<<tabs...>>}}} macros etc.

|>|''<part'' //partName// [''hidden''] ''>'' //any tiddler content// ''</part>''|
|//partName//|The name of the part. You may reference a part tiddler with the combined tiddler name "//nameOfContainerTidder//''/''//partName//. <<br>>If you use a partName containing spaces you need to quote it (e.g. {{{"Major Overview"}}} or {{{[[Shortcut List]]}}}).|
|''hidden''|When defined the content of the part is not displayed in the container tiddler. But when the part is explicitly referenced (e.g. in a {{{<<tiddler...>>}}} macro or in a link) the part's content is displayed.|
|<html><i>any&nbsp;tiddler&nbsp;content</i></html>|<html>The content of the part.<br>A part can have any content that a "normal" tiddler may have, e.g. you may use all the formattings and macros defined.</html>|
|>|~~Syntax formatting: Keywords in ''bold'', optional parts in [...]. 'or' means that exactly one of the two alternatives must exist.~~|
<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!Applications<html><a name="Applications"/></html>
!!Refering to Paragraphs of a Longer Tiddler<html><a name="LongTiddler"/></html>
Assume you have written a long description in a tiddler and now you want to refer to the content of a certain paragraph in that tiddler (e.g. some definition.) Just wrap the text with a ''part'' block, give it a nice name, create a "pretty link" (like {{{[[Discussion Groups|Introduction/DiscussionGroups]]}}}) and you are done.

Notice this complements the approach to first writing a lot of small tiddlers and combine these tiddlers to one larger tiddler in a second step (e.g. using the {{{<<tiddler...>>}}} macro). Using the ''part'' feature you can first write a "classic" (longer) text that can be read "from top to bottom" and later "reuse" parts of this text for some more "non-linear" reading.

<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!!Citation Index<html><a name="Citation"/></html>
Create a tiddler "Citations" that contains your "citations". 
Wrap every citation with a part and a proper name. 

<part BAX98>Baxter, Ira D. et al: //Clone Detection Using Abstract Syntax Trees.// 
in //Proc. ICSM//, 1998.</part>

<part BEL02>Bellon, Stefan: //Vergleich von Techniken zur Erkennung duplizierten Quellcodes.// 
Thesis, Uni Stuttgart, 2002.</part>

<part DUC99>Ducasse, Stéfane et al: //A Language Independent Approach for Detecting Duplicated Code.// 
in //Proc. ICSM//, 1999.</part>

You may now "cite" them just by using a pretty link like {{{[[Citations/BAX98]]}}} or even more pretty, like this {{{[[BAX98|Citations/BAX98]]}}}.

<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!!Creating "multi-line" Table Cells<html><a name="TableCells"/></html>
You may have noticed that it is hard to create table cells with "multi-line" content. E.g. if you want to create a bullet list inside a table cell you cannot just write the bullet list
* Item 1
* Item 2
* Item 3
into a table cell (i.e. between the | ... | bars) because every bullet item must start in a new line but all cells of a table row must be in one line.

Using the ''part'' feature this problem can be solved. Just create a hidden part that contains the cells content and use a {{{<<tiddler >>}}} macro to include its content in the table's cell.

|subject1|<<tiddler ./Cell1>>|
|subject2|<<tiddler ./Cell2>>|

<part Cell1 hidden>
* Item 1
* Item 2
* Item 3

Notice that inside the {{{<<tiddler ...>>}}} macro you may refer to the "current tiddler" using the ".".

BTW: The same approach can be used to create bullet lists with items that contain more than one line.

<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!!Creating Tabs<html><a name="Tabs"/></html>
The build-in {{{<<tabs ...>>}}} macro requires that you defined an additional tiddler for every tab it displays. When you want to have "nested" tabs you need to define a tiddler for the "main tab" and one for every tab it contains. I.e. the definition of a set of tabs that is visually displayed at one place is distributed across multiple tiddlers.

With the ''part'' feature you can put the complete definition in one tiddler, making it easier to keep an overview and maintain the tab sets.

The standard tabs at the sidebar are defined by the following eight tiddlers:
* SideBarTabs
* TabAll
* TabMore
* TabMoreMissing
* TabMoreOrphans
* TabMoreShadowed
* TabTags
* TabTimeline

Instead of these eight tiddlers one could define the following SideBarTabs tiddler that uses the ''part'' feature:
<<tabs txtMainTab 
    Timeline Timeline SideBarTabs/Timeline 
    All 'All tiddlers' SideBarTabs/All 
    Tags 'All tags' SideBarTabs/Tags 
    More 'More lists' SideBarTabs/More>>
<part Timeline hidden><<timeline>></part>
<part All hidden><<list all>></part>
<part Tags hidden><<allTags>></part>
<part More hidden><<tabs txtMoreTab 
    Missing 'Missing tiddlers' SideBarTabs/Missing 
    Orphans 'Orphaned tiddlers' SideBarTabs/Orphans 
    Shadowed 'Shadowed tiddlers' SideBarTabs/Shadowed>></part>
<part Missing hidden><<list missing>></part>
<part Orphans hidden><<list orphans>></part>
<part Shadowed hidden><<list shadowed>></part>

Notice that you can easily "overwrite" individual parts in separate tiddlers that have the full name of the part.

E.g. if you don't like the classic timeline tab but only want to see the 100 most recent tiddlers you could create a tiddler "~SideBarTabs/Timeline" with the following content:
		sortBy 'tiddler.modified' descending 
		write '(index < 100) ? "* [["+tiddler.title+"]]\n":""'>>
<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!!Using Sliders<html><a name="Sliders"/></html>
Very similar to the build-in {{{<<tabs ...>>}}} macro (see above) the {{{<<slider ...>>}}} macro requires that you defined an additional tiddler that holds the content "to be slid". You can avoid creating this extra tiddler by using the ''part'' feature

In a tiddler "About" we may use the slider to show some details that are documented in the tiddler's "Details" part.
<<slider chkAboutDetails About/Details details "Click here to see more details">>
<part Details hidden>
To give you a better overview ...

Notice that putting the content of the slider into the slider's tiddler also has an extra benefit: When you decide you need to edit the content of the slider you can just doubleclick the content, the tiddler opens for editing and you can directly start editing the content (in the part section). In the "old" approach you would doubleclick the tiddler, see that the slider is using tiddler X, have to look for the tiddler X and can finally open it for editing. So using the ''part'' approach results in a much short workflow.

<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!Revision history<html><a name="Revisions"/></html>
* v1.0.9 (2007-07-14)
** Bugfix: Error when using the SideBarTabs example and switching between "More" and "Shadow". Thanks to cmari for reporting the issue.
* v1.0.8 (2007-06-16)
** Speeding up display of tiddlers containing multiple pard definitions. Thanks to Paco Rivière for reporting the issue.
** Support "./partName" syntax inside <<tabs ...>> macro
* v1.0.7 (2007-03-07)
** Bugfix: <<tiddler "./partName">> does not always render correctly after a refresh (e.g. like it happens when using the "Include" plugin). Thanks to Morris Gray for reporting the bug.
* v1.0.6 (2006-11-07)
** Bugfix: cannot edit tiddler when UploadPlugin by Bidix is installed. Thanks to José Luis González Castro for reporting the bug.
* v1.0.5 (2006-03-02)
** Bugfix: Example with multi-line table cells does not work in IE6. Thanks to Paulo Soares for reporting the bug.
* v1.0.4 (2006-02-28)
** Bugfix: Shadow tiddlers cannot be edited (in TW 2.0.6). Thanks to Torsten Vanek for reporting the bug.
* v1.0.3 (2006-02-26)
** Adapt code to newly introduced Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly() function (in TW 2.0.6). Thanks to Paulo Soares for reporting the problem.
* v1.0.2 (2006-02-05)
** Also allow other macros than the "tiddler" macro use the "." in the part reference (to refer to "this" tiddler)
* v1.0.1 (2006-01-27)
** Added Table of Content for plugin documentation. Thanks to RichCarrillo for suggesting.
** Bugfix: newReminder plugin does not work when PartTiddler is installed. Thanks to PauloSoares for reporting.
* v1.0.0 (2006-01-25)
** initial version
<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>

!Code<html><a name="Code"/></html>
<html><sub><a href="javascript:;" onclick="window.scrollAnchorVisible('Top',null, event)">[Top]</sub></a></html>
//                           PartTiddlerPlugin

// Ensure that the PartTiddler Plugin is only installed once.
if (!version.extensions.PartTiddlerPlugin) {

version.extensions.PartTiddlerPlugin = {
    major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 9,
    date: new Date(2007, 6, 14), 
    type: 'plugin',
    source: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#PartTiddlerPlugin"

if (!window.abego) window.abego = {};
if (version.major < 2) alertAndThrow("PartTiddlerPlugin requires TiddlyWiki 2.0 or newer.");

// Common Helpers

// Looks for the next newline, starting at the index-th char of text. 
// If there are only whitespaces between index and the newline 
// the index behind the newline is returned, 
// otherwise (or when no newline is found) index is returned.
var skipEmptyEndOfLine = function(text, index) {
	var re = /(\n|[^\s])/g;
	re.lastIndex = index;
	var result = re.exec(text);
	return (result && text.charAt(result.index) == '\n') 
			? result.index+1
			: index;

// Constants

var partEndOrStartTagRE = /(<\/part>)|(<part(?:\s+)((?:[^>])+)>)/mg;
var partEndTagREString = "<\\/part>";
var partEndTagString = "</part>";

// Plugin Specific Helpers

// Parse the parameters inside a <part ...> tag and return the result.
// @return [may be null] {partName: ..., isHidden: ...}
var parseStartTagParams = function(paramText) {
	var params = paramText.readMacroParams();
	if (params.length == 0 || params[0].length == 0) return null;
	var name = params[0];
	var paramsIndex = 1;
	var hidden = false;
	if (paramsIndex < params.length) {
		hidden = params[paramsIndex] == "hidden";
	return {
		partName: name, 
		isHidden: hidden

// Returns the match to the next (end or start) part tag in the text, 
// starting the search at startIndex.
// When no such tag is found null is returned, otherwise a "Match" is returned:
// [0]: full match
// [1]: matched "end" tag (or null when no end tag match)
// [2]: matched "start" tag (or null when no start tag match)
// [3]: content of start tag (or null if no start tag match)
var findNextPartEndOrStartTagMatch = function(text, startIndex) {
	var re = new RegExp(partEndOrStartTagRE);
	re.lastIndex = startIndex;
	var match = re.exec(text);
	return match;

// Formatter

// Process the <part ...> ... </part> starting at (w.source, w.matchStart) for formatting.
// @return true if a complete part section (including the end tag) could be processed, false otherwise.
var handlePartSection = function(w) {
	var tagMatch = findNextPartEndOrStartTagMatch(w.source, w.matchStart);
	if (!tagMatch) return false;
	if (tagMatch.index != w.matchStart || !tagMatch[2]) return false;

	// Parse the start tag parameters
	var arguments = parseStartTagParams(tagMatch[3]);
	if (!arguments) return false;
	// Continue processing
	var startTagEndIndex = skipEmptyEndOfLine(w.source, tagMatch.index + tagMatch[0].length);
	var endMatch = findNextPartEndOrStartTagMatch(w.source, startTagEndIndex);
	if (endMatch && endMatch[1]) {
		if (!arguments.isHidden) {
			w.nextMatch = startTagEndIndex;
		w.nextMatch = skipEmptyEndOfLine(w.source, endMatch.index + endMatch[0].length);
		return true;
	return false;

config.formatters.push( {
    name: "part",
    match: "<part\\s+[^>]+>",
	handler: function(w) {
		if (!handlePartSection(w)) {
} )

// Extend "fetchTiddler" functionality to also recognize "part"s of tiddlers 
// as tiddlers.

var currentParent = null; // used for the "." parent (e.g. in the "tiddler" macro)

// Return the match to the first <part ...> tag of the text that has the
// requrest partName.
// @return [may be null]
var findPartStartTagByName = function(text, partName) {
	var i = 0;
	while (true) {
		var tagMatch = findNextPartEndOrStartTagMatch(text, i);
		if (!tagMatch) return null;

		if (tagMatch[2]) {
			// Is start tag
			// Check the name
			var arguments = parseStartTagParams(tagMatch[3]);
			if (arguments && arguments.partName == partName) {
				return tagMatch;
		i = tagMatch.index+tagMatch[0].length;

// Return the part "partName" of the given parentTiddler as a "readOnly" Tiddler 
// object, using fullName as the Tiddler's title. 
// All remaining properties of the new Tiddler (tags etc.) are inherited from 
// the parentTiddler.
// @return [may be null]
var getPart = function(parentTiddler, partName, fullName) {
	var text = parentTiddler.text;
	var startTag = findPartStartTagByName(text, partName);
	if (!startTag) return null;
	var endIndexOfStartTag = skipEmptyEndOfLine(text, startTag.index+startTag[0].length);
	var indexOfEndTag = text.indexOf(partEndTagString, endIndexOfStartTag);

	if (indexOfEndTag >= 0) {
		var partTiddlerText = text.substring(endIndexOfStartTag,indexOfEndTag);
		var partTiddler = new Tiddler();
		partTiddler.abegoIsPartTiddler = true;
		return partTiddler;
	return null;

// Hijack the store.fetchTiddler to recognize the "part" addresses.
var hijackFetchTiddler = function() {
	var oldFetchTiddler = store.fetchTiddler ;
	store.fetchTiddler = function(title) {
		var result = oldFetchTiddler.apply(this, arguments);
		if (!result && title) {
			var i = title.lastIndexOf('/');
			if (i > 0) {
				var parentName = title.substring(0, i);
				var partName = title.substring(i+1);
				var parent = (parentName == ".") 
						? store.resolveTiddler(currentParent)
						: oldFetchTiddler.apply(this, [parentName]);
				if (parent) {
					return getPart(parent, partName, parent.title+"/"+partName);
		return result;	

// for debugging the plugin is not loaded through the systemConfig mechanism but via a script tag. 
// At that point in the "store" is not yet defined. In that case hijackFetchTiddler through the restart function.
// Otherwise hijack now.
if (!store) {
	var oldRestartFunc = restart;
	window.restart = function() {
} else

// The user must not edit a readOnly/partTiddler

config.commands.editTiddler.oldIsReadOnlyFunction = Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly;

Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly = function() {
	// Tiddler.isReadOnly was introduced with TW 2.0.6.
	// For older version we explicitly check the global readOnly flag
	if (config.commands.editTiddler.oldIsReadOnlyFunction) {
		if (config.commands.editTiddler.oldIsReadOnlyFunction.apply(this, arguments)) return true;
	} else {
		if (readOnly) return true;

	return this.abegoIsPartTiddler;

config.commands.editTiddler.handler = function(event,src,title)
	var t = store.getTiddler(title);
	// Edit the tiddler if it either is not a tiddler (but a shadowTiddler)
	// or the tiddler is not readOnly
	if(!t || !t.abegoIsPartTiddler)
		return false;

// To allow the "./partName" syntax in macros we need to hijack 
// the invokeMacro to define the "currentParent" while it is running.
var oldInvokeMacro = window.invokeMacro;
function myInvokeMacro(place,macro,params,wikifier,tiddler) {
	var oldCurrentParent = currentParent;
	if (tiddler) currentParent = tiddler;
	try {
		oldInvokeMacro.apply(this, arguments);
	} finally {
		currentParent = oldCurrentParent;
window.invokeMacro = myInvokeMacro;

// To correctly support the "./partName" syntax while refreshing we need to hijack 
// the config.refreshers.tiddlers to define the "currentParent" while it is running.
(function() {
	var oldTiddlerRefresher= config.refreshers.tiddler;
	config.refreshers.tiddler = function(e,changeList) {
		var oldCurrentParent = currentParent;
		try {
			currentParent = e.getAttribute("tiddler");
			return oldTiddlerRefresher.apply(this,arguments);
		} finally {
			currentParent = oldCurrentParent;

// Support "./partName" syntax inside <<tabs ...>> macro
(function() {
	var extendRelativeNames = function(e, title) {
		var nodes = e.getElementsByTagName("a");
		for(var i=0; i<nodes.length; i++) {
			var node = nodes[i];
			var s = node.getAttribute("content");
			if (s && s.indexOf("./") == 0)
	var oldHandler = config.macros.tabs.handler;
	config.macros.tabs.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
		var result = oldHandler.apply(this,arguments);
		if (tiddler)
			extendRelativeNames(place, tiddler.title);
		return result;

// Scroll the anchor anchorName in the viewer of the given tiddler visible.
// When no tiddler is defined use the tiddler of the target given event is used.
window.scrollAnchorVisible = function(anchorName, tiddler, evt) {
	var tiddlerElem = null;
	if (tiddler) {
		tiddlerElem = document.getElementById(story.idPrefix + tiddler);
	if (!tiddlerElem && evt) {
		var target = resolveTarget(evt);
		tiddlerElem = story.findContainingTiddler(target);
	if (!tiddlerElem) return;

	var children = tiddlerElem.getElementsByTagName("a");
	for (var i = 0; i < children.length; i++) {
		var child = children[i];
		var name = child.getAttribute("name");
		if (name == anchorName) {
			var y = findPosY(child);

} // of "install only once"

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by Albert Harkness, Ph.D., LL.D.
An Easy Method For Beginners In Latin
[[Introduction]] [[Lesson I]] [[Lesson II]] [[Lesson III]] [[Lesson IV]] [[Lesson V]] [[Lesson VI]] [[Lesson VII]] [[Lesson VIII]] [[Lesson IX]] [[Lesson X]] [[Lesson XI]] [[Lesson XII]] [[Lesson XIII]] [[Lesson XIV]] [[Lesson XV]] [[Lesson XVI]] [[Lesson XVII]] [[Lesson XVIII]] [[Lesson XIX]] [[Lesson XX]] [[Lesson XXI]] [[Lesson XXII]] [[Lesson XXIII]] [[Lesson XXIV]] [[Lesson XXV]]
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Description|view a set of tiddlers using a droplist, "first/previous/next/last" links, or timed slideshow|
The {{{<<storyViewer>>}}} macro allows you to quickly ''display //and// navigate between a set of tiddlers'', using a droplist of titles and/or individual "first/previous/next/last" buttons/text links.  It also provides a "slideshow" feature that permits you to ''present one tiddler at a time with a countdown timer to automatically advance to the next tiddler'' after a specified number of seconds.
> see [[StoryViewerPluginInfo]]
2011.03.11 1.4.0 added 'sort:fieldname' parameter
2011.01.24 1.3.4 in droplist onchange handler, don't clear slideshow 'started' flag (allows slideshow to continue after manual navigation)
|please see [[StoryViewerPluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2007.10.23 1.0.0 Initial release, split {{{<<storyViewer>>}}} macro definition from [[StorySaverPlugin]] to allow separate installation of story saving vs. story viewing features.
version.extensions.StoryViewerPlugin= {major: 1, minor: 4, revision: 0, date: new Date(2011,3,11)};

config.macros.storyViewer = {
	tag:			"story",
	storynotfoundmsg:	"'%0' is an empty/unrecognized story",
	firstcmd:		"first",
	firstbutton:		"<<",
	firstmsg:		"first: '%0'",
	nextcmd:		"next",
	nextbutton:		">",
	nextmsg:		"next: '%0'",
	previouscmd:		"previous",
	previousbutton:		"<",
	prevmsg:		"previous: '%0'",
	lastcmd:		"last",
	lastbutton:		">>",
	lastmsg:		"last: '%0'",
	refreshmsg:		"redisplay '%0'",
	refreshmsg:		"",
	autostart:		false,
	handler: function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {

		var parsed=paramString.parseParams('anon',null,true,false,false);
		var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place);
		if (here) var tid=here.getAttribute("tiddler");
		var storyname="";
		var p=params.shift();
		var keywords=['first','previous','here','next','last','list','links','timer','sort'];
		if (!p || keywords.indexOf(p.split(':')[0])!=-1) {
			// find story from current tiddler name
			if (!tid) return; // not in a tiddler... do nothing!
			var stories=store.getTaggedTiddlers(this.tag);
			if (!stories) return;
			for (var s=0; s<stories.length; s++) {
				if (!stories[s].linksUpdated) stories[s].changed();
				var tids=stories[s].links.slice(0);
				if (tids.contains(tid)) { storyname=stories[s].title; break; }
			if (!storyname.length) return; // current tiddler is not part of a saved story
		else { storyname=p; p=params.shift(); } // user-specified story name

		var sortby=getParam(parsed,'sort','title');
		var tids=this.getStory(storyname,sortby); // get tiddler list

		var target=null;
		switch (p?p.split(':')[0]:'') {
			case 'first':
			case 'previous':
				var i=tids.indexOf(tid);
				if (i!=-1) var target=tids[Math.max(i-1,0)];
			case 'here':
				if (tid) target=tid;
			case 'next':
				var i=tids.indexOf(tid);
				if (i!=-1) var target=tids[Math.min(i+1,tids.length-1)];
			case 'last':
			case 'links':
			case 'timer':
				var delay=parseInt(getParam(parsed,'timer',15))*1000; // msecs between slides
				var autostart=params[0]=='autostart'; if (autostart) params.shift();
				var action=params[0]; // null/close/fold
			case 'list':
				var prompt=getParam(parsed,'prompt',storyname+'...');
				var nobuttons=params.contains("nobuttons");
				var allbuttons=params.contains("allbuttons");
				var onlybuttons=params.contains("onlybuttons");
		var label=getParam(parsed,'label',params[0]||target);
		if (target) this.renderLink(place,tid,target,label);
	getStory: function(storyname,sortby) { // READ TIDDLER LIST
		var tids=[];
		var fn=store.getMatchingTiddlers||store.getTaggedTiddlers;
		var tagged=store.sortTiddlers(fn.apply(store,[storyname]),sortby||'title');
		if (tagged.length) // if storyname is a tag, get tagged tiddlers rather than links
			for (var t=0; t<tagged.length; t++) tids.push(tagged[t].title);
		else {
			var t=store.getTiddler(storyname);
			if (t && !t.linksUpdated) t.changed();
			var tids=t?t.links.slice(0):[];
		return tids;
	renderLink: function(place,tid,target,label) {
		// override default labelling with specified text (if any)
		if (tid==target) { // self-referential links turn into 'refresh links'
			var btn=createTiddlyButton(place,null,this.refreshmsg.format([tid]), function() {
				var here=story.findContainingTiddler(place).getAttribute("tiddler");
		else // create link
	renderAllLinks: function(place,storyname) {
		var out="{{floatleft{";
		out+="<<storyViewer [["+storyname+"]] first first>> &nbsp;";
		out+="<<storyViewer [["+storyname+"]] previous previous>> &nbsp;";
		out+="&nbsp; <<storyViewer [["+storyname+"]] next next>>";
		out+="&nbsp; <<storyViewer [["+storyname+"]] last last>>";
		out+="{{center{<<storyViewer [["+storyname+"]] here>>}}}";
	renderList: function(place,tids,tid,storyname,prompt,nobuttons,allbuttons,onlybuttons) {
		var h="";
		h+='<form style="display:inline">';
		if ((!nobuttons||onlybuttons) && allbuttons) {
			h+='<input type="button" value="'+this.firstbutton+'" ';
			h+='	style="padding:0" title="'+(tids[0]?this.firstmsg.format([tids[0]]):'')+'"';
			h+=' onclick="if (this.form.list.length<2) return; ';
			h+='	this.form.list.selectedIndex=1; this.form.list.onchange();">';
		if (!nobuttons||onlybuttons) {
			h+='<input type="button" value="'+this.previousbutton+'" style="padding:0 0.3em"';
			h+=' onclick="if (this.form.list.length<2) return; ';
			h+=' 	var i=this.form.list.selectedIndex-1; if (i<1) i=1; ';
			h+='	this.form.list.selectedIndex=i; this.form.list.onchange();"';
			h+=' onmouseover="if (this.form.list.length<2) return; ';
			h+=' 	var i=this.form.list.selectedIndex-1; if (i<1) i=1; ';
			h+='	var v=this.form.list.options[i].value; if (!v.length) return; ';
			h+='	this.title=config.macros.storyViewer.prevmsg.format([v]);">';
		h+='<select size="1" name="list"';
		if (onlybuttons) h+=' style="display:none;"';
		h+=' onchange="if (this.value) story.displayTiddler(this,this.value);">';
		h+='<option value="">'+prompt+'</option>';
		for (i=0; i<tids.length; i++) {
			h+='<option '+
				(tids[i]==tid?'selected ':'')+
		if (!nobuttons||onlybuttons) {
			h+='<input type="button" value="'+this.nextbutton+'" style="padding:0 0.3em"';
			h+=' onclick="var i=this.form.list.selectedIndex+1; ';
			h+='	if (i>this.form.list.options.length-1) i=this.form.list.options.length-1; ';
			h+='	this.form.list.selectedIndex=i; this.form.list.onchange();"';
			h+=' onmouseover="var i=this.form.list.selectedIndex+1; ';
			h+='	if (i>this.form.list.options.length-1) i=this.form.list.options.length-1; ';
			h+='	var v=this.form.list.options[i].value; if (!v.length) return;';
			h+='	this.title=config.macros.storyViewer.nextmsg.format([v]);">';
		if ((!nobuttons||onlybuttons) && allbuttons) {
			h+='<input type="button" value="'+this.lastbutton+'" ';
			h+='	style="padding:0" title="'+(tids[tids.length-1]?this.lastmsg.format([tids[tids.length-1]]):'')+'"';
			h+=' onclick="this.form.list.selectedIndex=this.form.list.options.length-1; this.form.list.onchange();">';
	renderTimer: function(place,tids,tid,delay,autostart,action) {
		var now=new Date().getTime(); // msec
		var target=createTiddlyElement(null,'input',now+Math.random()); // unique ID
		target.setAttribute('type','button'); target.style.padding='0';
		target.tid		=tids[Math.min(tids.indexOf(tid)+1,tids.length-1)]||''; // next tiddler
		target.action		=action;
		target.formatTimer	=this.formatTimer;
		target.start		=this.startTimer;
		target.stop		=this.stopTimer;
		target.onmouseover	=this.pauseTimer;
		target.onmouseout	=this.resumeTimer;
		target.tick		=this.timerTick;
		target.onclick		=this.timerClick;
		target.next		=this.timerNext;
	formatTimer: function(t) {
		return '0:'+String.zeroPad(Math.floor(t/1000),2);
	startTimer: function(delay,start) {
		var co=config.options; // abbrev
		var now=new Date().getTime(); // msec
		this.stopTime=now+delay; // msec
		this.title='CLICK='+(start?'reset':'start')+" slideshow timer... next: '"+this.tid+"'";
		if (start) {
			var code="var e=document.getElementById('"+this.id+"'); if(e)e.tick()";
		return false;
	stopTimer: function() {
		this.title="CLICK=start slideshow timer... next: '"+this.tid+"'";
		return false;
	pauseTimer: function() {
		if (!this.started) return;
		var now=new Date().getTime(); // msec
		return false;
	resumeTimer: function() {
		if (!this.started || !this.paused) return;
		var now=new Date().getTime(); // msec
		return false;
	timerTick: function() {
		var now=new Date().getTime(); // msec
		if (!this.started)
		else if (this.paused) {
			this.title="[PAUSED] MOUSEOUT=resume, CLICK=reset... next: '"+this.tid+"'";
		var remaining=this.stopTime-now;
		if (remaining>0) {
			if (this.started && !this.paused) this.value=this.formatTimer(remaining);
			var code="var e=document.getElementById('"+this.id+"'); if(e)e.tick()";
		} else {
		return false;
	timerClick: function() {
		return this.started?this.stop():this.start(this.delay,true);
	timerNext: function() { // OPEN NEXT TIDDLER
		var here=story.findContainingTiddler(this);
		config.macros.storyViewer.started=true; // next slide autostarts to continue slideshow
		if (this.tid) story.displayTiddler(here,this.tid);
		if (!here) return false;
		var t=here.getAttribute('tiddler');
		if (this.action=='close') story.closeTiddler(t);
		if (this.action=='fold' && config.commands.collapseTiddler) // see CollapseTiddlerPlugin
		return false;
config.paramifiers.story = {
	onstart: function(v) {
		var t=store.getTiddler(v); if (t) t.changed();
		var list=t?t.links:store.getTiddlerText(v,"").parseParams("open",null,false);
[[I. Subject and object - Singular number|Lesson I]]
[[II. Subject and object - Plural number|Lesson II]]
[[III. Nouns - First declension|Lesson III]]
[[IV. First declension - Genitive|Lesson IV]]
[[V. First declension - Apposition|Lesson V]]
[[VI. First declension - Review - Certain forms of verbs|Lesson VI]]
[[VII. Nouns - Second declension|Lesson VII]]
[[VIII. Second declension - Nouns in ''UM'' - Indirect object - Dative|Lesson VIII]]
[[IX. Nouns in ''A'', ''US'', and ''UM'', continued. - Predicate nominative - Preposition ''IN''|Lesson IX]]
[[X. A Dialogue - Richard and Henry|Lesson X]]
[[XI. Adjectives in ''US'', in ''A'', and in ''UM''|Lesson XI]]
[[XII. Second declension - Words in ER and IR - Prepositions|Lesson XII]]
[[XIII. Second declension - Words in ER - Vocative|Lesson XIII]]
[[XIV. Second declension - Comparative view|Lesson XIV]]
[[XV. Dialogue - questions|Lesson XV]]
[[XVI. First and second declensions - Adjectives - Dative with adjectives|Lesson XVI]]
[[XVII. Adjectives - Dative with adjectives|Lesson XVII]]
[[XVIII. A short story|Lesson XVIII]]
[[XIX. Third declension - stems in L, R, N|Lesson XIX]]
[[XX. Third declension - Stems in L and R - Ablative of means|Lesson XX]]
[[XXI. Third declension - Stems in N|Lesson XXI]]
[[XXII. A father's letter|Lesson XXII]]
[[XXIII. Third declension - Stems ending in S|Lesson XXIII]]
[[XXIV. Third declension - Stems ending in B or P, D or T|Lesson XXIV]]
To save a copy for off-line use, right click on [[this text|#]] and choose "Save Link As..." from the menu that appears.

Content for "An Easy Method for Beginners in Latin" (Albert Harkness) is in the public domain
Formatting and wikifying (c) 2011 Sacha Chua and Wayne Young
Latest version at http://sachachua.com/notebook/latin