END; require_once "include/calendar.php"; require_once "include/planner-include.php"; require_once "include/header.inc.php"; ?> Hi165 I/J Rizal and the Emergence of the Philippine Nation

Spanish conquest

Why did the Europeans come?

There was always contact between the West and the East. Always. Mainly for commerce. But when a nation now begins to feel the lack of food, then you have tribal fighting. The Chinese were very good at commerce, especially because of their proximity to the South China Sea and their proficiency with ships. The biggest European boat was 20m, but the biggest Chinese boat was 200m. Difference in cultures. China and India were wealthier than Europe. Because transport by sea was easier than transport by land, Asia enjoyed a significant advantage in trade. Confucius was ahead of the Greek philosophers. India and China were the centers of mysticism and philosophy, long before Christanity began. Basically, China and India were much ahead of the rest of the world. America was out of the way, but now archaeologists are discovering traces of civilization as old as Europe, but they were isolated because of the body of water.

Europe came into prominence around the 1500s because of spices. Europeans always wanted to go to the East because of its wealth - gold, silk, spices..

Easterners never tried to conquer the world. Conquering the world is a Western concept. Easterners think they're superior to them.

virtu - "macho" - think renaissance they came to become famous Read the references for the full story of Pigafetta.

They arrived March 16. 18th was the first contact. 7 April - arrived in Cebu 27 April - Magellan dies 50 days changed history. How can we say that Magellan changed world history? How did that happen? The maps changed because of Magellan.

Motives of Magellan

At noon on Sunday April 7, we passed by many houses built upon logs. The captain sent his foster son as the ambassador. When they reached the city, they saw a vast crowd surrounding a "king." The king asked his governor what the Spaniards wanted. Introduced as a king on his way to Molucca, but was interested in trade, barter.

Tribute dispute. Nearly came to war, but this man mistook them for the Portuguese and so they were respected. So Magellan didn't cow them forcefully.

They were offered refreshments, that sort of thing. But typical European superiority kicked in because the natives had been nice to them. ;)

1630-1670 missionary talked to traders in Cebuano.. So Fr. Arcilla believes that a Filipino circumnavigated the globe...

Tuesday morning: 9th of April The Captain-General saw that people were receptive... Humabon asked about succession. Respect for elders. Tribal society: food gatherer, defender of tribe. Old people can't do either, so are less respected.

They were shocked because Legaspi had treated a female prisoner very well. =) Treating prisoners humanely.

I don't want you to be Christians because of me, but because you want it?

small isle, three chiefs - lots of fighting. Magellan made all the mistakes.

People following Magellan - sank, bad luck, weather. 2 other voyages were planned as soon as Magellan left, but those sank. Then Loaisa, Saavedra, Villalobos followed after they returned. Purpose: follow up what Magellan did, get spices, pick up survivors. They all failed because of the winds. Elkano was the second-in-command of Loaisa's voyage, and his page was Urdaneta. Urdaneta had spent so much time in Timor and East Indonesia that he learned the language and the tides. VERY IMPORTANT. Customs people confiscated all his papers. He was a prisoner of the Portuguese, but escaped over the border and rewrote his stories. Religious crisis, becomes an Augustinian friar in Mexico.

AS SOON AS HE LEFT, the king already prepared two trips. ELKANO comes and more expeditions follow URDANETA is very important because he knew things.

... fast forward to Legaspi's voyage Bisaya - "happy"

Capitan-General Master Pilot - sea maneuvers Grumete - in charge of turning the clock

5 boats Cartagena - flagship, almiranta commerce

Why would the West want to conquer?

Because they had come here only at our sufferance. They weren't safe, they weren't in power. The West had the idea of conquering the world, not the East. Why did they come out to conquer? Because they needed us

Ahead: Spain never managed to conquer completely. Westerners always had to be on guard against native forces. We were fortunate because they gave us a new way of looking at life - Christianity. There are more Spanish mestizos than French and British all over the world. The Spanish came here and mixed with us, unlike elsewhere where the colonial powers isolated themselves from the ones they colonized.

They equalized our society. ?

The key element in the conquest of the Philippines was not military, but cultural.

Magellan arrived, met Humabon. Asked innocently who was going to succeed Humabon. Humabon was attracted by Christianity's "Honor your father and your mother (or go to hell)", because he was to be succeeded by his son-in-law and young people didn't respect old people that much.

Tribes have people good for two reasons: gather food or fight for the tribe. When you get old, you're not going to be as good a gatherer or fighter. You become just another mouth to feed, a burden that won't be as respected.

Even if there were abuses, in spite of all the evil..

By the time of the revolution, we saw that this is what is meant by "human dignity".

We wanted to be treated as we thought we deserved. Many of the Filipinos were better than people in Spain. Racial insult - "You are only Filipinos" - but in many cases, better than ordinary Spaniards. Still, not allowed to govern ourselves. Sense of injustice. Being lower class.

Not hatred, but racial insult. Heart of the revolution.

Spain was not ready because of a revolution in Cuba.

If the Americans did not come, our history would have been different. (Duh.)

The worst thing that Marcos left us is the moral corruption that pervades our society. The breaking of our moral ideals. (Rogues in Robes..)

_Events do not happen if there are no ideas.

1490-1491 Columbus - just money. Magellan - also religion

Historically we have the discovery by Columbus Then Portugal scolded them because only Portugal can go south .. so he defended it by saying he went west, and he confirmed it with Papal bulls. Conquest - justification kings were also priests the separation of church and state is a very modern concept. Kings used to rule by divine mandate. We have that from the medieval tradition. Reform the Spanish Church Give us the power to nominate our own bishops Reconquista -> reconquer and rebuild the Church War chest Church revenues - Provided you build churches in the land you recover Two big privileges: nominate and rebuild

later on there were legal discussions King has power over all things, two kinds of power, jurisdiction, supervision, appeal to a higher court

Go back to our test: Different climate - different goods - huge market economy defense

3 kinds of empires

18 25 19 26 20 27 21 28 22 29 23 30 exploitation monopoly, farm colonies - different climate

History as it influences our lives Galleon trade affects our lives. Guide to understanding historical studies. Events in the past are only as good as they affect our present lives.

Exploitation colonies
Anything in a different climate which produces different goods. These goods command a huge price at home, because they are exotic. Not conquest yet. "Exploitation" because of the different climate and the different wares.
Farm colonies
Same climate. Excess population went here.

What did they find? What was the local indigenous society when they arrived?

Pigafetta was quite surprised that the Philippines welcomed them so nicely.

We didn't have words for directions. How strange. Europeans gave us their calendar and their compass directions.

Tiwalayan Until the Spanish came, we were all cousins.


CULTURE: The way you act and speak because of what you are. Why would you put blond dye on your hair? Why don't you wear a bahag to class? Why would you spend time in Megamall?

Try to keep that it mind so that history is not just a calendar thing. Try to reflect. Language, food, clothing, way of life / manners


HISTORY: process of cultural change CULTURE: the way you act and speak because of what you are CIVILIZATION: highways, expressways, high buildings... CHANGE of cultures. That's what's important. The prehispanic - as we were before - and the postconquest

What did Pigafetta know about the country? He only landed in Leyte, Cebu. Then came the missionaries. Legaspi. Written impressions.

The Philippines was connected by land to the main continent. Geographically, therefore, we are part of Asia. What does that mean? We are going to go into that later on - some of our words are Sanskrit - so we are confirming the impressions through archaeology.

When the Spanish came, they found writing (but not literature), organized religion, oral traditions. Three vowel sounds? Later research showed that some distinguished 5 vowel sounds, but a lot still mostly use three vowel sounds. ?

We also had social etiquette, coming from our Malayan roots. Culture, music, beautiful women... Economy, political structure, religion.. These are the facts. The question is what is going to be changed when the missionaries come?


INDOLENCE. Because of our climate, we tend to need only short-time planning, especially since abundance rots. A subsistence economy was better-suited for our climate, but this was the cause of disdain as the Europeans couldn't figure out why we didn't plan ahead. Key to understand our economy.

'broken society' - slaves can go against their master, tribal wars, looking down on other tribes. Soliman despised the Bisayas.. Surrender of the chiefs of Cavite showed how powerful Soliman was.


Because of our geography. Because of our different climate, we had different goods which were in great demand in Europe. Now we had an exploitation colony. The main reason for coming here was economic - trade. And easily you can understand why the crown would control this econompic monopoly. Keywords: MONOPOLY and INDOLENCE. CULTURE.

No central goverment

at last in the European sense.

How did they conquer us?

Henry - leadership - agree in ideas

Henry did not travel except to fight, but his plans led the men out of Portugal and as far as India because people agreed with his ideas. Henry is like a basketball coach. He plans, but it is the basketball players who implement.

Leadership is not by physically forcing people, but rather by agreement of ideas. I am a leader; you will do what I want because you agree with my ideas.

IDEA: Look for other means of trade.

Columbus - vision

The crown doubted the success of Columbus, so they withdrew some of the privileges. So Columbus' family exagerrated his accomplishments. But Columbus was not learned. Perhaps Columbus was a mystic?

Columbus succeeded in proving that there is land there.

Before that

Magellan - action

Magellan was always in control. Until he made an error, that is, and died. Because he was able to deal with the mutiny, his sailors respected him.

Read "Ferdinand Magellan (1480?-1521)"

Magellan proved himself a good soldier against the Muslims.

Albuquerque Magellan gets bored and returns to Portugal, but is given no recognition by King Manuel (who didn't really like him anyway). Magellan asked the King for moradia, the soldier's bonus. Lower soldiers received this, but Magellan didn't because of the animosity of King Manuel. So he decided to go to Spain.

[ someone ended up in Timor, where he was received well because of a local legend. ] pearls as big as goose eggs

In Spain he meets two brothers. Ruy Faleiro, scientist west passage aranda

casa de contratacion de fonseca put his own men on the expedition "nephew" of fonseca - conjunta persona

magellan was in control in spite of this corruption. he was admirable because he was a persistant man.

Two attempts to establish a colony failed. Shipped himself to Panama and managed to break through the Panama canal. Proved Columbus had not yet reached India. Because of this, Magellan set out to discover the true route to India.

Legaspi's coming

The story is always about discoveries. This voyage interested two groups - the financiers and the explorers. Traders and the Crown. Even the traders themselves wanted the authority of the Crown to protect their monopoly. We will see that there are two kinds of colonies, so that explains why the Crown was so interested.

No European society in the Philippines. Legaspi - conquest, starting the government of the colony of the Philippines. We started to have missionaries, traders, administrators. Through the years, Creoles (Mexicans, etc., but Spanish parents) also came. In time, the Chinese mestizo will come. Economic experience of the Chinese and Chinese mestizos Legaspi starts this process of administration.

Uncorrupted Legaspi - he paid for part of it.

KEY PERSON: Urdaneta Had been a page of Elkano, knew the languages and tides... Important because he found the return to Mexico.

Gifts - women going to the camp, banquets.. royal instructions - survey of towns. if you think it is good to keep this territory, say so. find a return route.

Important point: Not military, but more diplomatic. Didn't try to kill everyone.

Sipanay - Negros Panay River - 5 silver pieces to one gold piece This is where they hear about Manila
Different boat from Chinese junk Sends interpreter to talk to the head Laya comes. Soliman comes, who is even more respected. They talk. Soliman says something about tribal rivalry IMPORTANT: Other chiefs surrendered to Goiti because they were liberated from the tyranny of Manila. Royal orders naming Legaspi as the govgen of the Philippines.

encomienda - not a land grant. encomendero does not own the land. encomendar - entrust IMPORTANT: encom_e_ndero

How do you reward the people who are helping you administer the land? By entrusting them with pieces of territory and the people living on it. tribute for development

So that's really how the Philippines was conquered - through the encomienda system Tribute was paid Not new - pagdatu - so people were used to it. Sugbu / santissimo...

Legaspi felt a sharp ache in left side and died

First: businessmen and navigators

Then: royal officials, missionaries, traders Then: creoles Then: chinese mestizos? Then: indios are lowest

Extra reading material

Blair, Robertson - 55 volumes of documents of our history. Robertson - vol 33 and 34, the story of Magellan. Magellan's Voyage Around The World. Pigafetta - supernumerario He wrote quite a lot about the sexual habits of before.. (Morbid fascination, yes?)

Spain and the Philippines. Kasaysayan (10 volumes). The third volume is pertinent to the conquest and colonization. Part of the fourth volume, too. Can be found in the library.

For discoveries, these three are the best: Barry, The Renaissance.

The Discovery of ? Travel and discover the Renaissance.

Reorganization/Colonization of the Philippines

How was the Spanish rule installed or set in place in our country?

... justify their conscience duty means authority If I have the duty to build a church, then I have authority over the church. How much is the question.

Conquer and establish encomienda I'm trusting the land to you encomendero - person in charge of this. resettle them into permanent communities

nomadic people

nsew space organization of houses and plazas in the village

poor - few migrants distance, poverty of Philippines, discouraged migration by the Spaniards

Kings are embodiments of all that their country stands for.

colonial system now (executive, legislative, judicial), but then it was an absolute (but not arbitrary) monarchy

King -> viceroy -> ...

We were under Mexico. Another viceroyalty was Peru.

a la rey se acata no se cumple

the law is respected. it is not fulfilled.

Integrated but not incorporated. Our local traditions were respected.

Gonzales de Penalosa - pledged own money to conquer Philippines on condition: governor for life milked country dry to recover expenses so colonization became an outright commercialization/exploitation... Heartless.

Limahong Felipe de Salcedo

Keep in mind that I say history is a _process_ of cultural change

When the governors came to the Philippines, what changed? What were the changes? Who were involved?



Leaders have power because they inspire others with the same ideas. That's the only thing which gives you unity and power. What were the ideas that these datus had? What was the cultural change?

What made Spain decide to colonize our country

how: military power missionaries encomenderos

military power was not enough, because if only by force = rebellion humanize before christianize IMPORTANT

why did we allow the cultural change moral evil - refusal of divine love life isn't just physical/material. elevated them again

sedentary agriculture - araro

_integration, not incorporated_ VERY IMPORTANT

Patronato real - exactly what Philip II needed to consolidate his throne key to that is monopoly. totalitarian

Beginning of the change in our culture First governors general

KEEP IN MIND Limasaway Cebu Panay Mindoro Manila

We are made human by permanent residence -- but what about the nomads in the desert?


How did they reorganize us into a political unit? Why did they stay? Why did they rule us?

What was the government that they established? How did they rule us? How did they form us into a colony?



How did they succeed in the work? What was the economic basis?

Hispanization made us a different people from the Malay, the Chinese..

What was our identity after Spain's colonization? What was our Hispanic culture?

What happened to the Filipinos because of the galleon trade?


Let us begin with population figures. We have two pages - p75 is the first. Notice the first paragraph there. The Spanish population in the Philippines was never large, and yet they exerted such a large influence on our lives. 12 years after the until the coming of the Americans, Manila was only Intramuros. Intramuros had 80 households and an unknown number of residents. There were 730 Spaniards all in all. Moluccas had some of them. Manila had around 397. Then we go to p79. 1665.

Chinese paid six times higher fees, but not called tribute.

Spain is very generous with grants. Slightly obviously. ;) Spanish International Cooperation.

Galleon trade

Goods in trade, traders themselves, laws and rules of trade Originally galleons were built in Mexico, but then they moved shipmaking here because of better materials. Molave stopped cannonballs. ;)

reason for abuse in the galleon trade, high wage

Acapulco -> Mexico City -> Veracruz and boat for Spain Asian Road

Three officials come down to inspect the manifest to see if it tallies with the goods they find. taxes, tariffs Why was it that Philippines were still under Spain for three hundred years? Could it be that the friars kept us loyal? Not any Spaniards... missionaries, people who had decided to stay

Neglect of the Filipinos

Split between landed minority and the landless majority

Before the Spaniards came, claims to land ownership were based on actual occupation and use.

first private land owner - cabeza de barangay

Americans: suffrage only to incomed, literate, gov-ed tiangge

5 classes

Last section on the clash of cultures. Remember what we said - history is just as good as the way it affects us. It affects our lives today. Foreigners, including traders Mestizos Filipinos - town Filipinos, usually Christian and baptized, and indios. cimarroles - "wild goat" not all in the town, just within hearing of the bells Manila - strongly Hispanized Mostly Mexican Filipinos creoles British did not mix with the Indian population, even the educated ones. Yet here, the Spaniards were okay, sorta.

Manila Spaniards could not go to Macao or China to buy goods directly, because of the Portuguese silver 4:1 gold in Europe, but 30:1 in Manila? Chinese wanted silver

Permanent agents: agencies of government and church

mestizos chinese problem What about the British? The Trial of Rizal - good legal Spanish -> English

mountain of gold 25 officers and a thousand indios - army most of those who fought were the Pampangos jihad, holy war Background story on Islam submission, resignation suran domestic help became part of our families

gradual transformation of indigenous society


Very important part of our history - the immediate background to the Revolution Clarify your ideas and make sure that the things that you think have supportive evidence Very very exaggerated stories of friar abuse Mostly the cabezas de barangay were the abusive tax collectors

p142 against appointing instead of from appointing

1869 - Suez Canal

Shortened the time between Spain and our country Two monthly voyages instead of one annual voyage

We wanted to be known not as a colony, but as a nation.


1859 return of Jesuits

1868 Gloriosa - revolution, drove Queen from throne

Bourbon removed

1700 Bourbon replaced Hapsburg

All the properties of the Church in Spain were confiscated, all orders closed except for the ones that were training missionaries for colonies conflict of conscience for the missionaries and priests, because they could not pursue their vocation in Spain because of the liberal government, so they had to go to the colonies, where they were tools of the government that persecuted them. Enlightened despots - reform from above, Catholic

1773 Jesuits criticized the totalitarianism, and they were expelled from Spain and all her colonies.

White Russia - Ukraine - retained a small group of Jesuits because Empress Catherine wanted educators 1814 Jesuits restored because it was not an official Church decree.. Jesuits clamored for because they were good teachers.

1859 Arrival of Jesuits

Military victory, but consolidated with missionaries - cheaper. Jesuits' primary purpose - Christianize Mindanao Ateneo Municipal - public school funded by the city government Chinese mestizos were allowed to enter

1860 Jesuit superior went to Mindanao to find a mission site.

Only Recollect person in Mindanao had died a month before. Complains from Recollects about Jesuits taking over, so monetary compensation

1861 First Jesuit mission - Tamontaca (!Recollect)

1862 Tetuan (!Recollect)

Antipolo became vacant because the secular priest there died, so a native-born priest was appointed to fill his place. But then the government gave the spot to the Recollects in compensation.. but for what? Two Jesuit missions were new. More for anti-native priest policy.

1863 Pelaez

creole, top priest, only born in the Philippines - complained - why a Recollect in Antipollo? cryptic symbolic language Philippine Normal University was also given to the Jesuits - normal school. Two teachers from Ilocos filed for a raise, and they decided to modernize the whole system. How important were the Jesuits? Educated more than 90% of the leaders of the Revolution. Opinion-makers Oh my, he's a little pro-Marcos.. colonies = self-liquidating problem with American native priests, so decree - non-Europeans or natives cannot become priests

1872 Paciano

was a close collaborator of Burgos and had to return home, so he couldn't finish college. Gomburza were executed. Change of name to Rizal instead of Mercado to avoid government problems. If not for 1872 Jose Rizal would have become a Jesuit. Recollects: Since we have land in Cavite, why don't you give us parishes - convenience, less travel? But the Archbishop said that the Dominicans have land but are not asking for parishes, so the government decided to give parishes to both the Dominicans and Recollects. Mariano Gomez was one of the native-born secular priests who lost his parish when it was given to the Dominicans. Pelaez starts a campaign with Burgos, Zamora, and some other priests, but didn't succeed.

Class matter

Need to get book from ORP

Our schedule is 4 quizzes and a final term paper. Your semestral mark will be an average of that. If your final term paper is good, then I may use it as the sole basis of your work. If it is publishable - not necessarily in a professional magazine, but maybe Guidon - then low quizzes can be disregarded.

Tests will not be true or false, fill in the blanks, or multiple choice. All tests will be essay - writing and telling a story. Your English must be grammatically correct, and mistakes will lower your mark considerably.

Make sure that you have a good essay.

The first two essays that you'll write are trial and error. By the third or fourth you will start to show improvement. History is generally telling a story, and when you tell a story imagine that you are telling it to grade school children. Unless you can put down on paper what you have in mind, do not think that you know something.

The first quiz will be on 27 Nov. Second, 18 Dec. Third, 1 Feb. Fourth, 8 March.

Term paper due on the last day of the finals week. Begin soon. You can submit drafts if you want, if there's time.

Consultation hours: by mutual agreement. All my mornings are occupied, and so are Saturdays. Normally, therefore, afternoon.

How do I grade quizzes? Normally I create quizzes so that there are 4 important points. If you include all 4 points in your essay, then you can get a ..D?

Magna Carta: article 2.e.3: Absences shall not be taken against the grades of the students unless these exceed the number of allowable cuts, because they are disciplinary problems, not academic problems.

We are allowed to cut only 6 class days. 4 latenesses = 1 cut. Use your cuts wisely.

The course covers the coming of Magellan up to the outbreak of the Bonifacio uprising. In the course of this, there was one man who was very important. Rizal awakened us to the idea that we deserved to be a free nation. How?

You are not going to memorize. In history, nothing happens overnight. Everything has a background, and everything has consequences. We are not teaching you calendar history. You need to understand cause and effect. That is history. Until you put things in words on paper, don't think that you know.

Page 33: not 3 days, but 3 years. Page 43: Soliman Page 60: regla We'll be using a bluebook for our tests. The way that I will mark your paper is to encircle or underline what needs to be corrected. Circle - serious error. I will not say what your error is - it is up to you to find out what your mistake is.

Synthesis: For example, did Magellan change world history?

So explain in statistics the rise and fall of Iloilo as an economic power. Population, then exports (textile), the number of looms for their textile industry, then the change in import/export, then fall in the export of textiles and rise

What characterized the various sectors that were not touched by

Effects of the galleon trade situado, chinese, down of agriculture, not modernized because it was controlled by a small-minded elite watch out for trying to answer more that the question

why did efforts to modernize the Philippine economy fail? refusal, because they didn't want to break the monopoly organized efforts, but ningas kogon royal philippine company, but then the French revolution stopped modernization efforts

what resulted from the tobacco monopoly self-sufficiency, internal trade

new aristocracy

What was the Chinese Problem?

The problem of native priests

which both Pelaez and Burgos tried to solve. Earthquake killed Pelaez in the Manila Cathedral. clock stopped at 7:08. Out in the bay, the captains reported that they saw a huge tidal wave. Violent deaths. Lots of violent deaths. Why is it that the big events of our country center around people whose lives end violently? Cavite Mutiny

compare with Misuari, who is still alive but committed treachery.. Spineless leaders.

Problem: racial prejudice

Would not have been a problem if native American priests performed well 1855 complaint about native American priests too short a time to change a completely pagan culture. It was just too soon. SHould have been longer training and stricter choice (?). Conclusion, though: racism. Filipinos and other native people cannot be ordained as priests. Religious friars just joined the order but did not become priests. Ordination is different from joining a religious order. Personal sanctification <- order, priesthood -> "man for others" go-between God and man. Tries to make the two come together. Not necessarily administrators. Now you have lay action to deal with that. Parish councils should take care of the material needs of the Church. Priests should be the bridge, only the bridge. Ateneo does teaching.. Do we have a scholarly community in the Philippines? Our Theology professors do not influence the world theology, and they do not have original concepts. i

Martin Sancho joined the Society in Rome. First Jesuit brother.

Two problems:


Bishops were required to visit all of the parishes, but priests were under their superiors and didn't want to have two bosses Problem of conscience


Regular priest - regula - more rules than secular priests. Seculum (world) Secular priests have a boss capitular vicar - work of a bishop even if you aren't Self-sufficiency - mission to parish, 500 tributes vacant, so went to friars, who then refused to give them up.

He's not in favor of female priests

Pope cannot dictate to a bishop, is top administratively but not as priests

What led to Gomburza?

It was a key experience of Rizal. That was the one that changed him into our best propagandist Leadership is not by physical power, but by ideas Antonio Luna - we felt like cowards because we did not openly express our love for country Rizal would have been a Jesuit had Gomburza not happened. He describes the trauma of his family. P Jacinto - pen name. Ateneo - reading Cicero and other Greeks lifted my mind and opened it to a new path that I can follow. Understanding the Noli, 1872 by Tormosanz

after the mutiny, the priests became silent noli me tangere account of mutiny. by confession. regidor's account.

Quiz 4

Read the whole thing as one unit, but focus on Rizal, Del Pilr and Bonifacio. At the end of whatever they do is the Revolution.


The question of Rizal. We have seen some of the background. Is it logical that with this situation in our country that a man like Rizal and the others would appear in the country? How do you know a man or a woman? By works, actions. Computer numerary Celebrated the anniversary of his death.

Bonifacio - Inventing a Hero, Glen A. May Forgery?


Birth, Cavite Mutiny and enrollment in Ateneo literary prizes anticlerical

Del Pilar

hunger in Spain