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BXGet another copy of the readings (2002.08.20)
BX2h Make notes on the previous readings (2002.08.20)
BX30m Study for the history long test (2002.08.12)
BX30m Study for the history long test (2002.09.01)
BX30m Study for the history long test (2002.09.02)
BXRead Ch 25, old edition - "The Hukbalahap Movement" (2002.09.13)
BXRead Kerkuliet, "Conclusion" to the Huk Rebellion (2002.09.13)
~//notebook/school/current/hi166/hi166-notes What we've discussed so far:


Revolution and the Philippine-American War

The Revolution of 1896: Focus on Aguinaldo

We are going to be looking at the first phase of the revolution. Rather than repeat 165, let's look at the same events from the pov of Aguinaldo instead of Bonifacio. Revolution begins as an idea, born in the minds of people. Ideas not associated with Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo was not an ilustrado. Ilustrado - enlightened, educated. Bonifacio - political organizer. Aguinaldo, something like a military leader.

The Katipunan

Jan 1, 1895. The first day of 1895. On that day, Aguinaldo was 26 years old and he took his oath of office as the town mayor of Cavite el Viejo (Viejo - old), which is now Kawit. kapitan municipal. If he's town mayor, then the Spanish must have viewed him as part of the Spanish government. Principalia. Government officials, political elite. You hold a position in government. Loyal subject to the Spanish crown.

Night of the same day, Aguinaldo (town mayor!) is also secretly inducted into the masonry. People joined the masons for the contacts. Rizal, del Pilar joining the Masonic lodges for contacts, propaganda. Two months later, Aguinaldo boards a boat from Cavite which takes him to Manila, and he is secretly initiated into the Katipunan by Andres Bonifacio himself. Characterize the Katipunan. Secret society that was inspired by the works of Rizal, the principal objective of which is the downfall of the Spanish colonial presence in the Philippines. He takes an alias - Magdalo, after Mary Magdalene. Bonifacio's Katipunan name was May Pag-Asa.

Katipunan was founded on July 7, 1892 and it was made up mostly of lower class, Manila. Small numbers.

1895: numbers increased rapidly, gain adherence from provinces around Manila, but less discriminating. Regional chapters. started to gain adherence among members of the provincial elite. Magdalo, Magdiwang - two provincial chapters for Cavite. Magdalo - Kawit, Magdiwang - Noveleta, Mariano Alvarez

Establishing an Army
Preparations for the struggle

Bonifacio ordered manufacture of bolos to be distributed among the members and hidden. Possible arrangements with Japan, but Japanese noncommittal. Stealing rifles and pistols from the arsenal (Maestranza)

Spanish suspicions

Friars exploited this to urge gov gen to act at once, but the gov gen at the time refused to take any action.

Discovery of katipunan

Apolonio de la Cruz and Teodoro Patino had a disagreement, and Patino got back by telling sister... arrests.

Wealthy people implicated

Signatures forged.

Cry of Pugadlawin - tear up cedulas
The Outbreak of the Revolution

retreat, retreat - not enough arms. Bonifacio wanted a coordinated attack on Manila, but decided against it later on because they lacked arms. Instead he tried to get the powder magazine at San Juan. Lost.

Reign of terror

The Spanish tried to suppress the revolution by becoming even harsher. Arrests. Tortures. Scams.

The Revolution in Cavite

Magdalo and Magdiwang, see Struggle for Leadership Towns rose up. Sweeping victory. Friars got angry, accused govgen Blanco of incompetence. Replaced by brutal General Camilo de Polavieja. Ordered massacre of civilians. Inch by inch, Spanish recaptured territory until one-third was recaptured.

The Spanish Counter-Offensive

The Spanish committed 9,277 troops to the retaking of Cavite, and that would begin in the February of 1997. The Magdalo side took the brunt of the attack because of its location. February 13, the counteroffensive began. The first town to fall is Silang. About a week later, Dasmarinas falls too. Magdalo is getting decimated. One month later, Imus. The day after, Bacoor. All Magdalo towns, falling one after the other. Noveleta, Sta. Cruz, Rosario, San Francisco - Magdiwang towns fall in quick succession once the eastern side is gained. May 1897, all of Cavite was pronounced retaken. Problem: Other side does not help!

Problems of Government

Supplies, defense. Separation of Cavitenos into two groups came out of a natural way of doing things, so that's why we had Magdalo and Magdiwang. It was administratively efficient. Each faction took care of government functions - taxation, supplies, maintaining discipline in the towns... But that resulted in military disaster as the two sides didn't cooperate with each other. Remember that decisions have to be made very quickly. If there are two commanders, then we'd have a problem.

The Struggle for Leadership

So Magdiwang invited Bonifacio in order to resolve the dispute. Magdalo believed that Katipunan was no longer a secret society and should therefore be replaced by one more in keeping with the demands of the period. Magdiwang thought Katipunan should remain as the government - already had constitution and bylaws recognized by all.

Tejeros Convention

But who would be the leader? Bonifacio was invited in to help resolve the dispute. Tejeros Convention. However, he hadn't taken into account the changing nature of the revolution. The ones who were participating: Cavitenos. Supposed to be representing the whole Philippines. You have Bonifacio expecting to be recognized as Supremo, but the convention led to his rejection and downfall. Insulted, he decided to set up his own revolutionary government, so he was seen as a traitor. Daniel Tirona objected to Bonifacio's election to the position of Director of the Interior because Tirona believed that only people with lawyers' diplomas should occupy it. Ilustrado vs masa thing again. We have in our province a lawyer, Jose del Rosario! Bonifacio declared elections annulled. Thought it was rigged. Parted ways with Aguinaldo. Blamed Magdalo for anomalies in election. Acta de Tejeros.

Naik Military Agreement

All combatants are part of an army corps (by persuasion or force) under Gen. Pio del Pilar. No one vested with power except right in the first place, and those who have never gone back on their oath and have conducted themselves loyally.

Execution of Bonifacio

Andres and Procopio Bonifacio found guilty of treason and sedition despite insufficient evidence. Death. Aguinaldo commuted it to banishment, but Gen. Mariano Noriel and Pio del Pilar (?!) asked him to reconsider. Pio del Pilar was playing both sides. Lots of people hated Bonifacio. Aguinaldo withdrew order. The execution of Bonifacio was something that haunted Aguinaldo for a very very long time. Aguinaldo was losing, and he tends to make mistakes when he's losing. Bonifacio was not the only person to die at Aguinaldo's hands. Now how do we explain the execution of Bonifacio himself? He expected to be recognized. These are Katipunan people. But he failed to recognize that his Katipunan was not the same as Cavite's Katipunan. Bonifacio's Katipunan was Manila-based, full of lower and middle class. Cavite's Katipunan was made of principalia. We have to remember that the Katipunan must be distinguished from the Revolution. You have to distinguish between the revolutionary movement (Katipunan) from the revolution itself. Who started it? Katipunan. But not only Katipuneros fought - lots of other people did, too. People who were never part of the Katipunan. He fails to see that the Revolution in Cavite is much more than the Katipunan, and that the people's loyalties are not to Katipunan but rather to the Revolution and to the Revolutionary leaders. Why was Aguinaldo elected President, not Bonifacio? Who would people choose? The one who wins. Were they loyal to Aguinaldo because he was Katipunan, or rather because of what he did? The Cavite Revolution had outgrown Katipunan. Bonifacio was the outsider. He wasn't of the same place or the same class... "Unacceptable" to the Cavitenos. Revolutions are complicated things.

The Revolution Continues

Govgen Camilo de Polavieja resigned, replaced by Fernando Primo de Rivera. Personal charge of military ops. Amnesty until May 17, and then later. Policy of attraction. Not very effective.

Biyak-na-Bato Republic

Revolutionary demands: the expulsion of the friars and the return to the Filpinos of the lands they appropriated for themselves representation in the Spanish Cortes freedom of the press and tolerance of all religious sects equal treatment and pay for Peninsular and Insular civil servants abolition of the power of the government to banish citizens legal equality for all persons

Aguinaldo Leaves Cavite

At Biak na Bato (brokered by Pedro A. Paterno), Aguinaldo and Primo de Rivera came to an agreement. For P 800,000 in three installments, a truce and revolutionary leaders leave on voluntary exile. Aguinaldo was interested in the money. Truce is just like saying time out.

Hostages - two Spanish generals and Col. Miguel Primo de Rivera, the gov's nephews. When we say Hong Kong, who is he talking to? He's talking to the Americans. Why the Americans? Spanish-American War?

Failure of the Truce

Didn't trust each other. Mutual suspicion.

Second Phase of the Revolution

PdR frustrated by Liberal Party becoming majority. Gen Basilio Augustin was successor of PdR, but ignorant. PdR wanted to stay. But on April 9, 1898, Gen Augustin arrived in Manila and following day turnover. new gov said he would continue Primo de Rivera's work of pacification, then leaned back and waited.

American Designs on the Phlippines

Span-Am rels were bad, because Cuban revolution = Am economic interests. Theodore Roosevelt Sr. wanted war in order to expand the navy. When TR became Assistant Sec of Navy in 1897, he planned attack of Manila. Dewey became commander of American Asatic Squadron, and on Feb 25 1898 cabled to make HK base. Instruction to take offensive against Sp flotilla in Mnl in case of war. Planned action. 1899 confession.

Aguinaldo's Meeting with American Officials

Dec 97 Truce

March 98 Fighting in Luzon

Talking to the Americans

America was looking at Cuba. In order to become a world power, you need a navy. In order to develop a navy, you need to go to war. US wanted to use Cuba's natural resources. Economic interests.

The Revolution Resumed
Arrival of Aguinaldo in Singapore

Wood meets with Felipe Agoncillo. Wood urges the HK Junta to return to the Philippines and resume the Revolution, and that they could count on the US' support. If we go to war with Spain, you can count on our support.

Junta is granted an audience with Dewey, and Dewey repeats. But Dewey says he cannot do it officially. Dewey will support it, but the US isn't committing itself.

April 1898 rumor Spanish-American war. Rebels stopped waiting for truth of rumor. In Hong Kong, Aguinaldo and his companions saw an opportunity to oust Spain. Division in ranks of exiles. Isabelo Artacho wanted to split the 400k. Ag refused, Artacho sued Aguinaldo in the HK SC. Ag evaded went to Saigon with Gregorio del Pilar and J. Leyba, took another ship to Singapore.

Ag eagerness lead. Pratt cables Dewey. Dewey sas come ASAP. Pratt arranged Ag dept, and Apr 26 Ag and co left for HK. But Dewey already went to Manila.

Americans' Dealings with Aguinaldo

Arrived Apr 3 talked to Howard Bray. Aguinaldo learned that the American consul in Singapore, Pratt, wanted to talk to him. Pratt convinced him that the American Congress and President promised not to possess Cuba, promised to leave after driving away the Spaniards.

Ag eagerness lead. Pratt cables Dewey. Dewey sas come ASAP. Pratt arranged Ag dept, and Apr 26 Ag and co left for HK. But Dewey already went to Manila.

Aguinaldo wonders why everyone's trying to get him to go home. Pratt points to the Teller Resolution passed by the Congress.

Aguinaldo and Consul Wildman

consul Rounsevill Wildman met him and said Dewey made arrangements. Suggested Ag should establish dictatorial government, then gov similar to US. Ag asked Wildman to purchase arms and ammunitions. 50,000 for 2k rifles and 200k rounds of ammunition. 67k for another shipment of arms. First arms delivered, but second disappeared. Ack! Both consuls write to government, and get letters of reprimands. Both Pratt and Wildman were told to shut up. Aguinaldo doesn't know anything about that.

Aguinaldo and the HK Junta

Met on May 4. Felipe Agoncillo, temp pers. Doroteo Lopez, temp sec. Teodoro Sandico, Anastacio Francisco, Mariano Llanera, Miguel Malvar, Andres Garchitorena, Severo Buenaventura, Maximo Kabigting, Faustino Lichauco, and Antonio Montenegro. temporary suspension of meeting to give Ag and Galicano Apacible time to join. dealings. Junta decided Ag should return to Phil.

Spanish Attempts to Win Over Filipinos

handbil Via la Autonomia, Pedro A. Paterno. May 8 Consultative Assembly, prominent mestizos. Purely advisory, no power for reforms. Augustin's attempt failed.

Aguinaldo Returns

May 7 rev cutter McCulloch arrived in HK. second return, notified that Dewey wanted him to return on board the ship. Left May 17 arrived May 19. Alleged that in his conference with Dewey that he was told US needed no colonies and that there was no doubt that the US would recognize Phil independence. Dewey denied, said he was being nice, not committing gov. No sufficient evidence to back up Aguinaldo, probably mistaken. Renewal of the struggle

proclamations. arms from Petrel (Am warship). May 21 proclamation. Last day of May, at noon, rise. Salinas, Noveleta, Naic, Tansa, Cauit, Bacoor, Las Pinas and Paranaque. Imus Paranaque Bakood LP within a week. Pampanga, SF and Macabebe caputerd by rebel. Practically whole of Luzon, except for port of Cavite and Monila, were in rebel hands by June 1898.

Spanish Attempts to Win Over Filipinos

May 8 Consultative Assembly, prominent mestizos. Purely advisory, no power for reforms. Augustin's attempt failed. What was it that Assembly was asking for? handbill Via la Autonomia, Pedro A. Paterno. Autonomy - a government of their own, a place in the government of Spain. Autonomy vs Independence. Let us run our own affairs, but let us remain under the government of Spain. We have a group of Filipinos who say that they don't need independence and that they'll be happy with autonomy. Autonomy is autonomy no matter who the power is. United States? We have people who are still saying all we want is autonomy. Here the Spanish are trying to win over the elite because they know the structure of Philippine society. How do they respond to this period? Those who follow Aguinaldo abided by the terms of the truce, but not all members of the elite were on Aguinaldo's side. They were now in a dilemma. Spain is about to go to war with the US. Who do we side with? Do we side with Spain or with the United States? Many decided that they'd rather side with Spain. Natural because we're talking about Hispanized people. "Catholic Spain vs Protestant America".

Arrival of Merritt
Battle of Manila Bay

Dewey sailed from Mirs Bay, near HK, for Phil with 7 armed ships. Early morning hours of May 1 1898 entered Manila Bay almost undetected. Sailed for Mla bay shore in hope to find Adm Patricio Montojo's fleet there. but fleet was near Sangley Point, waiting. Dewey turned around. Flagship Olympia. Guns. Very famous lie: "You may fire when you're ready." To present America as "cool"... 1 dead American - suffocated. Dewey sailed from Mirs Bay, near HK, for Phil with 7 armed ships. Early morning hours of May 1 1898 entered Manila Bay almost undetected. Sailed for Mla bay shore in hope to find Adm Patricio Montojo's fleet there. but fleet was near Sangley Point, waiting. Dewey turned around. Flagship Olympia. Guns. Massacre, because Am ships were heavily armed. More tonnage. 12:30 PM, destruction complete. White flag in Cavite. Entrance into world politics of USA. Days of Empire of USA.

Aguinaldo returns to Sangley Point

He arrives on May 19 and displays the organizational and military capabilities. Word spread so fast that you had 62 Filipino volunteers in the Mexican army defecting. A thousand troops flocking to him. His old commanders asking for assignments. Demoralized Spaniards. End of June, all of Luzon except for Sangley Point and the City of Manila are in the hands of Philippine revolutionaries. We're winning! Flush with military victory, Aguinaldo decides to set up his government. Indicative of victory. Spain blockhouses watchtowers siege.


All the American officials go to such troubles to make everything unofficial.

Siege of Manila

arrabales or suburbs. Dewey blockaded Manila and waited. Aguinaldo beseiged Manila. cut off food and water supply. June 6 offered honorable surrender, but stubborn spanish honor

Merritt is overall in command of all ground troops

Merritt says "Nobody talk to Aguinaldo." His objective is to defeat the Spaniards in Manila. Then realizes that he has to go through Aguinaldo in order to get to Manila. So they reopen communications. Ask for Aguinaldo's cooperation: cooperation = evacuation of bay side area by Fil troops so that americans could occupy it. demanded request made in writing. promised after evacuation. Verbal promise, withdrew troops, but promise broken. Why on earth?

Spanish-American Secret Agreement and Mock Battle

reinforcements arrived. diplomatic skills, negotiations. Peninsular Gov heard about possible surrender and replaced Augustin with Gen Fermin Jaudenes. Hopeless. Mock battle. Fil rebels excluded from Manila. Dewey and Merritt accepted. Dewey even oftered to hold back troops.

Mock Battle of Manila

Ag participated despite orders to the contrary.

Terms of capitulation

surrender Span troops and Fil volunteers inside walled city. Americans safeguard city, inhabitants, churches and religious worship. Signed aug 14.

Protocol of Peace

Aug 10 Sec of State Day send Jules Cambon draft of protocol app of not more than 5 commisioners on each side to discuss peace treaty. draft meet in Paris. cessation of host. August 12, all military operations be suspended. Dewey cut cable. So merritt didn't get proclamation. ack.

Beginning of Hostility

cooperation = evacuation of bay side area by Fil troops so that americans could occupy it. demanded request made in writing. promised after evacuation. Verbal promise, withdrew troops, but promise broken. Suspicions. Artemio Ricarte expressed doubts. Pio del Pilar as well.

The Malolos Republic

Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines from Hongkong with a plan to form a Filipino government. To show the capacity of the Filipinos for self-government, Aguinaldo established the Dictatorial Government in May and, a month later, the Revolutionary Government. Different departments were created to take charge of the multifarious duties of the new government. In September the Congress was convoked at Malolos and a constitution prepared to guide the government in its progress toward republicanism. Diplomatic agents were sent abroad to work for the recognition of Philippine independence. But the United States, however, had decided to take over control of the Philippines, and in December 1898 the Treaty of Paris between Spain and the United States was concluded. The treaty gave the Philippines to the United States. Even so, the Filipino leaders proclaimed the Philippine Republic in Malolos with Aguinaldo as President.

The Dictatorial Government

From HK, Mariano Ponce, draft of plan for revolutionary government. Consul Wildman advised dictatorial that would become republican. Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Aguinaldo's advisor, told him dictatorial because strong executive needed. quick decisions, so you cannot share power with anyone else. If you make a decision in a democratic government, it's slow! May 24 1898> assuming command of all armed troops fighting against Spain, whether they like it or not... Everything's coming from Aguinaldo. At this point you cannot share power. later in the day, formally establishing government. Nullified Biyak-na-Bato Republic, asserted dictatorship was temporary.

Declaration of Independence

Aguinaldo wanted to declare independence. Mabini objected because more important to organize gov to convince foreign powers of competence and stability. Ag won. June 5, June 12 set aside for Phil independence. Julian Felipe asked to prepare composition. June 11, draft, Marcha Filipina Magdalo. Adopted as official march. Changed to Marcha Nacional Filipina. June 12. proclaimed independence, Cavite el Viejo. Flag made by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, assisted by Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herboza, made in HK. Act prepared by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista who read it. Signed by 98 people. Witnessed by American army officer. Promulgation on Aug 1. But foreign powers still in the Philippines; Spanish hadn't surrendered, Americans were there... Are they independent or not? No foreign control, and established government? Not really. Why declare independence? Press release, propaganda? Legitimacy. Is it important that other governments recognize you? Yes! Notice EDSA 2? You can shout all you want that you're independent, but if other people don't recognize it... It was very important that the other countries recognize you as the legitimate president or that you are a legitimate country. Declaration alone is not enough for recognition. Very very crucial! Also the Filipino as audience. People who didn't know what side to take. But you see this guy winning battles and declaring independence - more victories expected. All this effort at symbols was crucial. You are creating a new nation. In a new nation, you need these new symbols. Crucial for putting together a nation. Not just the Katipunan, but even people who didn't join the Revolution, or thos e who sided with Spain... Then he besieges Manila.

Reorganization of Local Government

Why start with local government? Legitimizing claim to leadership, expanding base for revolution.. good step in closer to people, grassroots. recognition. Filipinos governing themselves. Congress, yada - doesn't show much. But towns running themselves, stronger message. Greater support for the revolution. Mabini believed in order. Democratic principles. first duty of the gov to interpret faithfully the popular will. surrounded by representatives. reorganization of local government. town chief (presidente), headman for each bario (cabeza), delegate for police and internal order, delegate for justice and civil registry, delegate for taxes and property. popular assembly. provincial chief (gobernador), three councilors, presidente of the capital city. Provincial Council. election of delegates from each province -> revolutionary congress. commissioners = military commanders, or appointed. Natural, after liberation -> election. Who has the right to vote? Men, 20 years old and above, of high status / character. Distinguished by high character, social position and honorable conduct. Principalia. So lots of people who were elected sometimes had questionable loyalties, because they had positions under Spain. Why is he allowing a very small group in each town to control local government? Goal of revolution was independencia. Independence. For Aguinaldo. Political term. Read Bonifacio or Jacinto, and the goal: kalayaan. Freedom. Not the same. Much wider. Social inversion? What people expect from the revolution. If you believe in kalayaan and you were fighting for kalayaan, you will find a government that did not change. Taxation. Abolished forced labor, but the principalia illegally asked for it.

Other stuff
Treatment of Enemy

justice. sometimes maltreated. May 29 1898 circular urging people to stop maltreating the enemy. june1 all classes of crimes were to be tried by competent mil tribunals. impressed necessity of respect people and property of enemy.

Apolinario Mabini

born of Inocencio Mabini and Dionisia Maranan in Talaga, Tanawan, Batangas. Simplicio Avelino conducted the school he attended. Transferred to Fr. Valerio Malabanan's school. Continued at San Juan de Letran and at UST, where he got law. dream defend poor, forsake priesthood, infantile paralysis. arrested suspicion of disturbance, revolution. Released because he was paralyzed. Sent to San Juan de Dios Hospital. Member of La Liga. Vacationing in Los Banos, was sent for by Aguinaldo. Trusted. Dark Chamber of the President. Brains of Revolution.

Administration of Justice

supplementary decree june 20. spanish penal code unless contrary remain in force. town chief was judge. -> provincial council -> commision of justice civil: popular assembly -> provincial council

The Revolutionary Government

one month, Maf 24 - june 23. Mabini wrote message deliv by Aguinaldo changing form to revolutionary. Changed title to President, objective - struggle for independence until all nations recognize, and prepare country so that true republic may be established. 4 departments. foreign aff, navy and comm, dept of war and public works, dept of police and internal order, justice, education and hygiene, dept of finance, agri and manu ind. not responsible for decrees of president, but were to sign with president. creation of congress. cayetano arellano offered sec of FA, but declined because o f American sympathies. Mabini accepted. Sept 28, increased.

Progress of the Revolution/War

When Manila falls Merritt goes home. Otis replaces him as commander of the American troops. Otis insists that Aguinaldo vacate the suburbs of Manila. Because the suburbs have been surrendered to us by the Spaniards. Manila means Intramuros. Manila is not the suburbs. Look at this map. Everyone was getting quite heated. So Aguinaldo leaves the suburbs. Drama drama. Move capital from Cavite (too near!) to Malolos. Why? Nice big town, far from Manila, but near enough to control.

The Malolos Congress

first significant act: ratification of independence. 80 delegates to congress? three identifiable groups of people. not exclusive, a lot of shading. ilustrados. principalia. elections aren't everywhere. Some elections underground. so he elects 60. characterization? mabini envisioned congress as advisory body. but congress contradicted and said modern constitution needed. mabini argued delicate task framing constitution should be done in peaceful times. congress not formed for constitution, but to advince president and give him support. but paterno and the majority overrulled. mabini submitted plan, but overruled. Felipe G. Calderon headed committee to draft consti. Set aside Paterno's plan, resembled Spanish. Advice of Cayetano Arellano, deriving insp fro mexcio, belgium, guatemala, costa rica, brazil, france. catholicism religion of the State. Tie. Victory of separaton of the Churcth and the State, one vote margin - Pablo Tecson. Calderon project to combine, defeated. jan 21 1899 promulgated malolos not antiCatholic but rather anti-clerical and bitter lesson, voting against church and state, under spain fund basis for colonial system. ACK! Calderon wrote in his memoirs; I want an oligarchy of intelligence and not an oligarchy of ignoramuses.

The Malolos Constitution

democratic traditions rooted on american soil. popular, representative and responsible exec legis judi assembly of representatives unique: making assembly or legislative branch superior to executive and judicial permanent commision sits at legislative body when assembly not in session unicameral legislation Calderon feared ignorant military elements. oligarchy of ignorance vs oligarthy of intellect. chekc exec even more, permanent commission. check powers of executive even when assembly is in recess. They were rushing it because of the Treaty of Paris, but Mabini objected. Constitution should be done in times of peace. And the congress was not convened for the constitution, but rather to advise the president. in a time like this, aguinaldo cannot afford to share power. Congress' reaction: do you want a republic or not? how do we prove to the rest of the world that we're independent if we don't have a constitution?

The Philippine Republic

mabini objections, amendments to satisfy mabini Jan 23 inauguration decree granting pardon all span pow not regular army granting span and other alien right to engage in business

Revolutionary Periodicals

El Heraldo de la Revolucion -> Heraldo Filipino -> Indice Oficial -> Gaceta de Filipinas La Independencia newspapers unanimous in policy of fighting for ind kept alive sparks of revolutionary character


all schools were closed, steps to open aug 29 ordered reestablish public instruction in budget

Diplomatic Activities

creating committes abroad, diplomatic agents. attempts to secure official audience with McKinley failed. Fight ratification of Treaty of Paris, but FilAm hostilities forced him to flee.

Back to the War
The Treaty of Paris

final peace terms. cession of entire Philippines to the US. main demand. $20,000,000 as payment for improvements. ratification did not command majority, but FilAm hostilities got many opponets to say yes. Am propaganda Fil fired first shots. Treaty not final yet. Needs to be ratified by both parties. February 6. But Feb 4, the hostilities started. We call it a war. The US for the longest time called it an insurrection. insurrection - against a duly constituted authority. war - between two sovereign countries.

Filipino-American Hostilities

American Apostasy

Americans approached Aguinaldo. Seemed to be allies. Fight a common enemy.

Benevolent assimilation

McKinley. Pretended not to know what to do. But vested interests. Economic interests - expanding business in the Orient. Naval and military interests who wanted the Philippines as the first line of defense. Religious interests for American Protestants. Successive reinforcements to the Philippines Otis sat on McKinley's order and amended it so that it wasn't so inflammatory. sovereignty, protection, right of cession. But unedited version got published.

Buying time

Commissions on adjustment of the conflicting political interests. Buying time.

San Juan Bridge

Arrests. Border crossing. Firing. Then MacArthur issued an order to advance against the Fil troops. Aguinaldo wanted to stop. Cabled Otis said it was against orders. wanted stop hostilities. Buencamino, Sr. started investigation. Senior military officers weren't at their posts. Filipinos in American ships were dismissed. 200 to 300 soldiers boarded two boats and were towed to Cavite. Not disembarked but sent back to Manila. (?) Amercan attack was sudden, showed incident planned to force isse. Americans did not investigate.

Fall of Mabini

Schurman Commission announced policy of extending sovereignty over the Philippines. John Hay authorized Schurman Commission to offer autonomy. Mabini wanted independence under protection, but Paterno and Buencamino wanted autonomy. Influential Assembly members passed resolution asking Aguinaldo to relieve Mabini as president of the cabinet.

Assasination of Luna

Different concept of army. Insubordination got him very angry. Slapped people a lot. Temper! Kawit Company, tried to disarm. Conspiracy. See Aguinaldo at Kabanatuan. Assasinated. Never investigated. Ag believed that Luna was a threat, rivalry, ambition divisiveness.

Negros Constitution

American sympathizers military district Allowed to frame their own constitution. Not taken seriously, but...

Bates Treaty

The Sultan of Jolo negotiated with the Americans. No occupation of anywhere in Jolo except for a particular town, and that the sultan could collect duties on those areas. In exchange, they'll recognize the sovereignty of the United States. The US was taking advantage of age-old animosities - sultans of Sulu had never really considered themselves part of the Philippines as the Spaniards thought of it. Ensuring that the Sultanate of Jolo remains outside of this war, outside of this problem with the Christian Filipinos. By this time, Aguinaldo is trying to talk to the sultanate of Jolo because he wants them to join forces. Initial reaction of sultan: ignore. General Bates - Americans only occupy town of Jolo, Sultan collects duties. Sovereignty of US over whole archipelago of Jolo and dependencies is declared, rights and dignities of sultan and datos will be respected, no interference wrt religion. domestic products free, unlimited, undutiable. monthly salaries in dollars.

Aguinaldo in the mountains

Women surrendered.

The Battle of Pasong Tirad

Gregorio del Pilar noted good terrain of Pasong Tirad. Suggested that he would make a last stand. Betrayed position - Januario Galut, Christian Igorot. Secret trail.

Capture of Aguinaldo

US soldiers pretended to be captures of the Macabebe scouts. Forging of signature of Lacuna, pretended to be reinforcements. Then Macabebes fired against countrymen, Tal Placido grabbed Aguinaldo.


See Why the US Won the Phil-Am War. Pacification - lots of torture. General "Jake" Smith. No prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn; the more you burn and kill the better it will please me. Kill everyone. Turn Samar into a howling wilderness. barbarity. Court-martialed.

Why the United States Won the Philippine-American War

Why did the United States win the Philippine-American War? Two decades ago, few would have thought that such a question merited serious consideration. The United States in 1900 was, after all, a powerful nation; the Philippines was not. If the United States was capable of defeating Spain so decisively, how could the ragtag forces of Emilio Aguinaldo have successfully resisted American occupation? Today, however, that initial question seems to require an answer. The Vietnam War has reminded us that the possession of superior military and economic power does not guarantee victory. Factors that contributed to the Philippine defeat

US military superiority

supplies, ammunition cavalry - mobility, shock effect control of the sea

organization of the Phil Army

regional loyalties, landlord-tenant relationship

Conflict between military commanders

Why should we follow Aguinaldo's general when we already have our own? When Cebu surrendered to the Americans.. How was Gregorio del Pilar killed? He was ordered to defend Tirad Pass, so he used guerilla tactics, but his position was betrayed by a Christian Igorot. So you have the Americans using the Filipinos as guides, even spies. How did Aguinaldo get captured? Macabebe Scouts from Pampanga. The Macabebes were never on the Philippines' side. They were on Spain's side, then the Americans. Thy were a separate group that were incorporated into the US Army.

Conflict between civilian and military officials

Certain military officials were overstepping their boundaries, read Guerrero.

Conflict between civilian leaders

Mabini (President of the Cabinet, wanted Philippine independence) versus Paterno (President of the Congress, wanted to be assimilated) executive and legislative divided over constitution divided over US offer of autonomy from Secretay of State John Hay Impasse, so Aguinaldo decides, and he accepts autonomy. What happens to Mabini? Paterno replaces him as President of the Cabinet. Aguinaldo is willing to consider the autonomy offer even if it means replacing Mabini. Peace cabinet. Mabini then became a very, very, very vocal critic of Aguinaldo. Difference in goal maybe difference in means to achieve a goal mabini was saying that the only way to achieve what we want is to go to war paterno - can't we negotiate our way to peace? Whatever happened to the offer of autonomy? Isn't it curious that Agoncillo doesn't tell you? March, he's on the run May 1899, autonomy offer, mabini falls June 1899, Luna is killed June - Oct, lull in fighting because of rainy season Nov - adoption of guerilla warfare During the lull, Aguinaldo wanted to negotiate the autonomy deal. Schurman was noncommital. Otis was no negotiation, surrender first. Paterno's like, you're attacking us. We're defending. So instead of preparing for war, Aguinaldo focused on political negotiation, but that fell through, so back to battle. Decision on guerrilla warfare.

Military tactics

Conventional war or guerrilla warfare? Military superiority + conventional warfare = win! Guerrilla warfare negates the military superiority. Cavalry is not useful going up the mountains. It is not too big a disadvantage. The one who knows the terrain will have the advantage. Why so late?

Mass support

At the end of 1901 there are 3 of Aguinaldo's commanders left in the field. Miguel Malvar operates in Batangas. Lukban in Samar. San Miguel in Bulacan.


When they capture a town ('pacify'), the Americans would conduct elections and a municipal government recognizing the Americans would be put into place. Malvar said "Elect the right people." So the townspeople elected people who would be very very loyal to the Americans during the day, but during the night would feed lots of information to the guerrillas.

Spectrum of response

participation motivation: patron-client, ideology collaboration millenarianism - second coming of Christ, cataclysmic event which will change the way the world operates.

Main Currents of American Expansionism

David Healy, U.S. Expansionism: The Imperialist Urge in the 1890o. (Madison, 1970) As the United States confronts the Philippine question, she is also coming from her own experience based on her own experience... Part, however, of understanding why this happened is a basic understanding of what was going on in the American side. Even the way that Healy begins his article - expansionism in the Philippines seemed to be in contradiction with the American historical experience. The US was going through a transformation as well. From being a colony itself, to a champion of colonized places, to a colonizer itself. Attitudes and motives are floating around it the minds of people. When they decided on the Treaty of Paris, there were heated debates in Congress. period of suppressed nationalism. the estabishment of a civil government continuing resistance against American rule steps taken to suppress Philippine nationalism motives and attitudes desire for economic gain American economy They were very expectant. They were doing very well - progressive. Expanding territory, greater agricultural output, exports. industrial economy. They were number 1 in terms of industrial output. Rags to riches stories. Andrew Carnegie. That type of story. He was very against the taking of the Philippines. He issued a personal check for $ 20M and told the US, if they wanted that, they should take it and let the Philippines go. Notice how face to face with all of this immense wealth, you have cycles of depression - boom-bust cycles - and poverty. Juxtapose Carnegie with industrial worker who is working and whose children must work. impoverishment of majority of population. What other social problems did the US face? Races. You have this whole problem with immigrants. Land of opportunity. But population pressure - supply couldn't meet demand... They simplified: the reason why we are in this state is because the US economy simply has two problems:

Military and Economic Expansion
Foreign policy preoccupied with foreign markets

Latin Americas sell in US, but buy Europe Peace, progress, and the manifold blessings of contented producing classes wait on the footsteps of any measure that shall insure to our laborers, our farmers and our manufacturers a fair chance in the markets of Central and South America. Official policy. But in the eyes of the ordinary American, the market that captured their imagination was China. The little they knew about it was that China was just so big! Imagine the possibilities! Building railroads all throughout China! People started to talk about the possibility of expanding even beyond South America, going into what they called the Far East. US -> Hawaii -> Guam -> Philippines -> China Notice! The Philippines was looked upon as a possible stepping stone or gateway to China. The Philippines was not valued for itself, but rather because it got them somewhere else.

Why does economic expansion mean military expansion?

If the US expanded economically, that could mean international friction. Possibility that there will be trade rivalry. If there is rivalry, there is possibility of war. Senator from Maine, sec of state under Garfield. Diminish Eu influence, increase US. build cannal, subsidies for federal merchant marine... reciprocal trade agreements, silver coinage... Harrison, Blaine, Sec of Navy Benjamin Tracy need larger navy, bases overseas. Controversy, brink of war... 1880, drive for modern navy No navy. Tracy, hypothetical attack, national pride, linked with drive for export markets - heightened trade rialries, heightened risk of war Naval theorist: Mahan: Believed that the US had to promote overseas commerce... but you need a battle fleet that is capable of controlling trade routes, and it has to support this with a strategic presence along the trade route. You need bases and fueling stations along the way. Businessmen didn't like having a colony - costs! But after they won Manila, then they warmed up.

Central tradition: expansionism

Pride. Triumphal march. Jefferson, first imperialist of the Republic. Alaska 1867, no new territory after Commodore Matthew C. Perry hoped Far East, naval bases in Ryukyu and Bonin Islands, colony in Formosa. Acq of Cuba, Nicaragua, or northern Mexico. Revived after Appomattox. William Henry Seward Secretary of State under Lincoln and A. Johnson. Attempted to buy Virgin Islands, thought of getting Cuba, Puerto Rico, Greenland, Iceland. Counted on annexation of Hawaii, eventually of Canada and Mexico. Seward unsuccessful, but tradition, manifest destiny

Manifest Destiny

Based on a biological conception of politics. Social Darwinism. Cautionary comment. Let's try to understand it and explain it, but we don't have to accept it. Just understand it because it was a very strong idea. The Americans thought that they were the best race. Races are basically not equal. Americans liked to rank human society. Biological thing! You simply had to be born white. Genetic. Divinely favored. Therefore we begin superior to everybody else. Context of the 19th century. Spanish-American war. They see the Cubans, and when they see the Cubans, they see themselves. It's very easy to identify with the Cubans. Weren't we a colony before? Didn't we win our independence? Didn't the founding fathers say that it is the right of any man to govern himself? Here we have the Cubans trying to win their independence. They enter into the war because they want to help the Cubans, and they end up with the Philippines. They didn't want it, but it's there. Many Americans were very uncomfortable with the fact that Filipinos looked at them like the Cubans looked at the Spanish. Heritage expansionism, conviction of mission, widespread belief in inequality of races Indian dehumanizzed, red devils Negro slavery Oriental European (south, east), different norms All men are created equal? white men with origins in a limited area of northwest Eu, everyone else shared in a varying degree of inferiority Institutionalized inequality wwhile professing an egalitarian ideology Little brown brother. We are brothers, but number one you are little and number two you are brown. They always pictured us as children.

Religious Zeal

Protestant vs. Catholic They thought Catholicism was backward. Answered by "duty". Mission. What is the mission of the United States? Moral obligation. To uplift inferior races to the level of American progress. What did progress mean? Mission to promote liberty "New World improving on the Old" Americans as model civilization Strong wrote ... "Preparing in our civilization the die with which to stamp nations" "He is preparing mankind to receive our impress". Exact nature of influence undetermined, but intetion certain. Not just enough to set an example, but also to act. This mission is from God. Even if you don't want to do it, it's going to happen. How can you say no to something God wants to happen? And if you do it, how could you fail? Our duty determines our destiny.

Imperialism vs Expansionism

Territories eventually became states. That's what expansion meant. But the Philippines didn't seem to fit into that mold, because we weren't contiguous, and because the US couldn't think of having the Philippines as a State. Imperialism - forcible taking over of an alien people. The only thing that could happen to the Philippines if it was taken by the US was to become a colony.

But they lost

We could not give them back to Spain. Or France or Germany. We could not leave them to themselves. Unfit for self-government. There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, ... Emphasis, always what you get out of this, not us. Conveniently open-ended. No deadline. no timetable, no provisions self-liquidating character of American imperialism. Only way to make it acceptable. Assumption, come here to civilize, so leave when they are civilized. temporary. but no specific provisions. antiimperialists like the self-liquidating aspect, and imperialists liked the open-endedness.

The Period of Suppressed Nationalism

"Pacification" - deportation of uncompromising nationalists, repression of nationalistic activities, passage of the Sedition Lawy, suppression of political parties.

American Military Rule in the Philippines

Merritt established military government, powers in unpacified areas where insurrection still raged. Prepared for civil establishment. Reestablished supreme court, 9 justices (6 filipino). Municipal governments. Reorganized local governments.

Foundation s of American Policy in the Philippines

Spooner Amendment - gave President full powers in administering the Philippines. Military -> purely civil government, temporary. Investigative mission Philippine Commission (Schurman) - study the existing social and political state of the various populations and report the measures which should be instituted for the maintenance of order, peace and the public wearfare. exercise due repsect for the ideals, customs and institutions of the Filipinos, emphasizing just and benevolent intentions of the US. Schurman - talked to pro-American ilustrados. Regulative policies

Early american colonial policy and filipino nationalism

irreconcilables. unfounded statements - Fil were willing to accept gov under supremacy of the US. Teller Resolution disclaimed any American interest to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction and control in Cuba, but no the Philippines. Mounting Filipino opposition. Repsonse: Repression.

Punishment of irreconcilables

Depordtation Concilation forces testified that Filipinos were not capable of independent government.

Guerrilla resistance

arme bands harrassed American Military forces

Sakay and the Resistance

voluntarily surrendered, thought that would hasten establishment of truly representative national legislature.

Brigandage act, reconcentaration

Insult. Concern. Malvar.

Suppression of Nationalistic Journalism and Literature

Strict censorship. Subversive theater.

Flag law.

Suppression of Nationalist Parties

The Federal Party.

cream of the conservative, well-educated and moneyed elements of Filipino-Spanish society Pardo de Tavera - prime mover for annexation

American Colonial Period and Commonwealth

most influential american - william howard taft taft commission - second philippine commission first civil gov practically everything done during 1901 to 12 was because of taft military government in Manila - merritt, 1898 to 01. "pacification" silence resistance - benevolence still evolving policy schurman arrives to evaluate. but because of fighting, he could only visit american-controlled places. filipinos are like children. need tangible proofs of american good will. swayed by people. taft's program. attraction. politically - civil government social - education economic - modernization problem is that taft cannot implement these programs unless there was peace and order macario sakay. anting-anting. so military government was necessary. subtle and covert resistance. even in the areas that the Americans controlled, they weren't sure if they had complete control. seditious theater. The sedition law: censorship of the press. political parties. seditious theater. aurelio tolentino. symbols. gabriel beato francisco - ang katipunan - author and audience arrested. federal party - to become a state of the Union cooperating with the pacification program irreconcilables. mabini. exiled to guam. in guam, the gov says he's free to go anywhere except the philippines. he eventually pledges allegiance and goes home. brigandage act. even circumstancial evidence. anyone in an armed band is a bandit. No distinction between guerrillas and bandits. reconcentration act. flag law. there was a party that displayed the Katipunan flag prominently. some Americans didn't like it because the US flag was pushed into the background schurman was only investigative.

Self-government under America

What are the factors that favored and limited Filipinization?

Anti-Imperialist League, Democrats Ilustrados Federal Party Mollify nationalists who wanted absolute independence Uncertainty of tenure Economic considerations Humid climate, greate distance Trade potential

Municipal elections.

Committee of two Filipino jurists and three military officers - plan: General Orders No. 40 Second Philippine Commission: Municipal Code. Three elective officials: municipal president, vice-pres, council

Who had the right of suffrage?
Provincial code

governor (Fil, two years, elected by municipal councils), treasurer (Am), supervisor (Am) Provincial governers demanded greater autonomy. elective third member - supervisor (Fil). Election done by all duly qualified Filipinos. Another law removed treasurer, replaced with vocal. vocal became elective. sh

Describe Filipinization in the Judiciary

Supreme Court - highest judicial body, 9 justices (6 Fil). Cayetano Arellano first chief justice. After 1901, 6 Am 3 Fil. Jones law = more Filipino judges. Filipino justices of the peace.

The Philippine Commission

Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda and Jose Luzuriaga added to the Philippine Commission. +Gregorio Araneta. and others. Legislative, but not executive. Only Secretary of Finance and Justice could be Fil.

Cooper Act

Bicameral legislature Taft testified that the Filipinos wanted representative assembly. best of intentions. restoration of peace and order. cooperation. declaration of intention. Cooper Act - Philippine Bill - first organic act. Bill of rights. PC still executive, but legislative shared by Commission with Phil. Assembly. Two resident commissioners. Independence of judiciary, right of appeal to SC of US. Purchase of friar lands. Conditions: complete restoration of peace and order, nationwide census, two years of complete peace and quiet. Nacionalista > Progresistas > minority

Philippine Assembly

Speaker: Osmena, majority floor leader: Quezon construction of schools, creation of state university, public health service, public works program, law for agricultural bank (later PNB). deadlock - clash of interests. Failure of Philippine Bill to specify which chamber starts budget planning... Traditional practice: lower house. PC insisted on supremacy. Assembly agreed to reelect Quezon. PC wanted Legarda. Friction. Nationalistic stuff.

Civil service act
Education under the americans
Taft and American Policy in the Philippines

The Harrison administration

Rapid Filipinization. Democrats win Am election. Henry Ford Jones investigated, glowing recommendations.

Jones Law
Rift over leadership

Teodoro Sandiko - Partido Democrata Nacional Quezon advocated collective leadership osmeņa - unipersonal leadership necessary for united and responsible direction. unipersonalista vs colectivista.

The Ford administration

Tried to take power back

Colonial schools and the educational system

The struggle for power between Sergio Osmena and Manuel L. Quezon

During the elections: Partido Nacionalista Colectivista, Partido Nacionalista (Unipersonalista), Partido Democrata (formerly the Federalistas, and some people who broke away from PN)

American Policy - commercial agriculture and land reform

greater production, greater efficiency - land - land reform land reform, they felt, was necessary because there was a political dimension. The revolution had been primarily agrarian (?) By providing land reform, they could quiet resistance. Attraction was necessary, and the target of attraction was the elite, and the elite were the landowners. We have to do it in such a way that the interests of the elite are taken into consideration. In implementing land reform, they wanted to find a way to protect property rights. Land reform - allowing people who don't have land to own land So they didn't break up large estates, but they discouraged the formation of new ones. Introduced a system of land titling, and the public lands act.

Land policy

Land survey and titling

Torrens system titles - absolute proof of ownership Protecting the rights of people. Giving them some kind of documentary proof that this is their land. So they're trying to protect the people who already have light. The system was voluntary. You didn't have to title your land if you didn't want to. The title is interesting. The land is originally from this title, and sometimes these titles go all the way back to 1902. If there's any dispute as to who owns the land, the title is the absolute proof of ownership.

Public Lands Act of 1902

The largest landowner in the Philippines was the government. 27.7M hectares of land was public in the country. 2/3 of all the land in the country was public.

How big is a hectare? 10k square meters. Ateneo from grade school to high school is something like 80 hectares. We want to make this land productive, so we will parcel it up into small units and give it to people who want to work on it. Homesteading. Maximum of 16 hectares of land per individual. You're supposed to work the land for 5 years, and after that, the title will be given to you for 20 pesos.

Tenancy relations

Tenancy is by definition a relationship between landlords and tenants. The prevailing system was share tenancy. Share tenancy: a tenant works the land, and then shares the harvest to the landlord. A tenant tills the land that is owned by somebody else in exchange for a percentage of the harvest. Who determines 45-55? The landlord? There's no formal law governing tenancy relations. Tenancy relations just developed out of custom.

Traditional ties between landlord and tenant

One of the major characteristics was that the ties were very very flexible. The tenant could call on the landlord for a wide range of assistance and the landlord could also ask for other things. Let's look at what the landlord got out of this relationship.

Deterioration of traditional ties

Tenancy is a business, not a relationship. I am your employer and you are my employee. Because I can make money out of this farm, I want to make more profit... All of this happened very very fast. Everything changed quickly. Now you have to sign contracts. This is what's expected of you, and this is what's expected of me. The katiwala becomes an enforcer who ensures that you do what you're supposed to do. All these wasteful practices are stopped. Interest-free rice loans removed. Very impersonal. The landowner disappears. You want to fish in my stream? Pay. You want to cut my lumber? Pay. Free pulot was stopped. No more rasyon. You can borrow if you want to borrow, and you have to pay with interest. 50% - 100%. You borrow one cavan now, you pay two next time. Things change. Look at how that affects the lives of people. This is how it impinges on the lives of people. While you are harvesting, you are being watched. In fact, some landlords had to give the katiwalas guards. This is the beginning of the private armies. They had to police you and watch you harvest. It's not about trust - it's about what's rightfully mine. Landlords appeared to be very removed from their tenants' lives. The emotional bond - the attachment between landlord and tenant - was fading. Population problem. We went through a war, and our population went up. Did our country go? No! We have the same amount of land, but now we have more people who need land. I can kick you out, and what are your chances of finding another landlord? Capitalism. I decided that I could increase my profits. American values learned in school.

Tenants' response

Now you get mad about the unpaid jobs because you feel that I'm not holding up to my end of the bargain. So we have contracts, but the contracts aren't what you want. The government is reaching the barrios. The constabulary could be used by the landowners to enforce the contracts. Any other ways in which Title. Disputed ownership. Titling was supposed to protect property owners, but who knows about them? Only the people who are educated and the people in government. Do the people in barrios know about them? No. Public Lands Act: 16 hectares. Since the relations are the same, then you create a peasant class, and forming unions make sense. Strikes, collectives. You refuse to work. It is also easier to bargain. They can aso petition the government. Partido Komunista Pilipinas

The campaign for independence

The campaign itself was the Philippine legislature's response to the Jones law. As soon as stable government could be established. Reaction of the Philippine legislature was "What does that mean?" No timetable, no criteria... so as a response to the ambiguity of the Jones law, the Phil legislature started sending independence missions to the United States. Also known as parliamentary commissions. 1919/1921/1924/1926/1930 The previous independence missions failed. The one that will be able to do that is the next one - the one sent in 1931, the Os-Rox mission. What's going on to renew interest in Philippine independence? The Philippines had become a liability. That of course has a positive effect on the Os-Rox mission. It was working with many lobby groups.

Attempts to get Os-Rox back

Quezon is starting to get worried. Whoever brought home the independence law was guaranteed to become President of the Philippines. Osmena was working on a law, and the most likely thing to happen... No guidelines, just bring home an independence law. Come home, progress report. Come home, party convention. Conventions are called before elections. Why are you calling a convention? No election is scheduled. If we change our platform now, it will look like we're the ones who aren't serious. Financial crisis. Therefore we can no longer afford to send you your allowances. Osmena also realized the opportunity that he had.

Agricultural groups, farm industry

Aftermath of the war. Overproduction. The situation was so bad that there was a depression. The Great Depression. This is a result of World War I. The farm industry complained that their goods couldn't compete with the imported goods from the Philippines that are coming in under free trade. "unfair competition" from free trade. What they were really after was the end of free trade. What eventually happened is that people couldn't grasp the major causes of the depression, so they focused on the minor causes like Philippine free trade.

Labor groups

Labor groups noticed the influx of cheap labor from the Philippines. Wage competition. The labor groups wanted exclusion. But the Philippines is an American colony! So exclusion is not a possibility. That's why the labor groups wanted independence.

Racial purity

90% of immigrants are men, most of them are <= 30 years of age. Mostly involved in agricultural or domestic jobs. Many Filipinos would go to dance halls with white Americans, which scandalized American males... Unassimilable


Isolationist. Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Larger possibility of war with Japan. Non-involvement.

Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill
The debate

Osmena challenges Quezon. Let's resign from our positions and debate on this without our influence on the government.

Osmena has certain advantages.
So Quezon has to neutralize every single base of support.
Tydings-McDuffie Law

Practically the same as HHC, but with more specific military reservations.

Commonwealth Period, 1935-1945

Political system

The split was good for the country in that there was a possibility of a two to-party system. two different parties led by two prominent personalities promise of a two-party system developing ensure their political future so they came back together in a coalition. the nacionalista party July 4 1946 there was an actual date already for independence. The poor lacked representation uneven distribution of political power elite: suffrage:: literacy requirement - education one party system (nacionalista party -> maq) 1935 constitution because of fear of war, the constitutional delegates made the office of the President very, very strong item veto over certain kinds of laws item veto. You can approve the law but you can reject rertain provisions of the law retroactive amendments to terms of office

Economic readjustment

lower dependence on the US alien control of the economy overdependence on the us market export taxes will be collected 6th year to 10th ear 5% to 25% bonded indebtedness . Free trade might actually continue- Government. Tydings-McDuffie Law The Chinese controlled retail trade. Groceries. Department stores. Things like that. They controlled credit facilities. The production of rice, copra. Banking. Real-estate. Logging. Japanese #1 importers of cotton. Deep sea fishing, mining, manufacturing, lumbering. It makes you wonder what did the Filipinos control? You're talking about people who are not citizens of your country and thus do not feel a need to keep their money in your country. They needed to find a way to restrict the control. More worried about the Japanese control of the economy. Security threat. Were we are a target? With all of the economic investments, how could we not be a target? Constitution provide for a very nationalistic stance. 60% Filipino-owned - extractive and natural corporations. So the Japanese evaded that by dummies. Some Japanese in Mindanao.. Davao. There were 18k Japanese in Davao. 10% of the population. These 18k Japanese owned 60% of the total land area in Davao. Paid 50% of taxes. Employed up to 14k Filipino laborers. What do the Japanese do when faced with the 60%-40% law? They had their own schools, hospitals, social clubs... It was really like they were developing a new country. Not assimilated. Migration into Davao was sponsored by the Japanese government. Other laws that were passed: Immigration quota Anti-dummy law NEPA Colonization sites All these different programs are being put up. Shows us what kind of concern there was over the economic control of the Japanese. The Japanese were clearly a security risk. Part and parcel of this effort to contain the Japanese was the development of a national defense system.

National defense

MacArthur is in charge of the defense plan.

Social Justice

Japanese Occupation

Introduction: On the Eve of the War

Japan's Southward Advance

Occupation of Korea Occupation of Formosa Invasion of Manchuria Invasion of China proper - Nanking

American Response

It seemed that the Americans were the only power in Asia that could do anything. The Europeans were distracted by the war. In order to prevent further deterioration of the situation in Asia, Japan and the US engage in diplomatic negotiations in Washington. In July of 1941, the Japanese invade Indochina, and Indochina is close to Vietnam. It's done during negotiations, and this was something the US couldn't take very lightly. So the US froze all the assets that Japan had in the States, and they also initiated an oil embargo. Economic embargos and stuff like that in order to prevent things from happening.

Build defenses of the country, and do it fast. By July, something definitely had to be done. MacArthur had retired and took Quezon's offer of military advisor.

The US recalled MacArthur to active service, and made him the commanding general of the USAFFE - Phil. troops + Am. troops in the Philippines. US Armed Forces of the Far East. Building up the defenses, sending supplies, but also involved in the war in Europe. Philippines was low on the list of priorities.

Commonwealth Preparations for War

The Philippines was an American territory, so it was clear that defense was the responsibility of the US. The Commonwealth was responsible for civilian defense. Civilian Emergency Administration - the government agency that was going to be in charge of all civil defense plans. Warehouses packed with rice, canned goods and the like to be used by civilians in times of war. Air raid drills. Pamphlets on how to build air raid shelters. Fire drills. An air raid means that planes are coming in, so they dimmed the lights and stuff. But you know what Filipinos are like. You're supposed to run into your house during air raids, but you run outside to watch the planes. The feeling was "war can't break out" - you know how we are.. Maybe in the future, but let's not worry about that now. No sense of urgency. It's a possibility, but not something people were worked up about.

Emergency powers. Alien Registration Law - Italians, Germans, Japanese... The goverment had to keep track of them. Japanese gardener story.

Preparations are going on, reinforcements kept coming in, and by March of 1942 MacArthur was confident that we'd be ready to meet the Japanese invasion.

The Japanese Invasion of the Philippines (Dec 8, 1941 - May 6,


The Japanese Offensive

Japan needs oil because of the embargo, so she goes directly to the Dutch in order to negotiate for oil. But the Dutch refuse, so Japan decides to simultaneously attack the Philippines and Malaysia, then converge on the East Indies and Australia. Basic plan - conquer all of the southern sphere in six months. They were supposed to be out of the Philippines quickly! But we had thrown off their timetable. Estimate - they thought we'd fall by January. That's why they were very angry - we had destroyed their timetable. Plan to be in Australia by May or June. Could only be possible if the only other power in Asia - the US - would not intervene. As long as the US did not intervene, then they'd be able to go with the plan. But they have to prevent the US from intervening... hence attack on Pearl Harbor, crippling America's ability to respond. December 8 here. Everyone was in Mass. Quezon wasn't expecting anything - he was on vacation in Baguio. He is awakened with the news that Pearl Harbor is bombed. Almost simultaneously, key US bases were bombed. Completely unexpected. Practically all of American air power was destroyed on the ground. What was happening elsewhere in Manila? December 7 was a special team for Ateneo because the Ateneo football team won the championship. Very festive atmosphere. Boarders. Half-boarders (the students that take their meals here). Then there are day students - the ones who go home for meals and stuff. When you're talking about going home.. no way to contact your relatives. Buses are no longer around. So they went home by walking. Even the ones going home to Central Luzon. Quezon closes all the schools. Delivered a very very moving speech. For no nation is worth anything unless it has learned how to suffer and how to die. And with that he called on the Filipino people to defend their country, their institutions and their values against the invaders. All ROTC graduates (students who went to at least one year of training) had to report to their schools for more intensive training and could be sent to the front. 400 cadets from Ateneo. The Japanese begin their major landings - December 2. 43k soldiers. Their mission is to go to Manila. Another landing on December 22. On Dec 23, Manila was declared an open city. It would not put up any resistance. It was a beautiful city, pre-war. It was the pride of the Spaniards and the pride of the Americans. It was very clean, orderly... it had a certain style. The Americans wanted to prevent any destruction to Manila and to its civilians. Widespread panic. Looting. Everybody looted. It was widespread. The first target were the Japanese stores. Then they went after any stores they wanted, and the police couldn't do anything. All hell broke loose. Quezon pleads with Roosevelt to adopt an Asia-first policy instead of an Europe-first policy.

The Occupation of Manila

On January 2, the Japanese enter Manila. Manila is finally an occupied city.

Retreat to Bataan

In preparation for those landings, general MacArthur ordered a full retreat to Bataan. War Plan Orange. What the heck... instead of distributed... but rather defense of the Philippines is centered on the peninsula of Bataan. The bulk of the Philippine-American forces retreated to Bataan. Even Quezon was told that he had to evacuate to Corregidor.

Quezon didn't want to leave. Quezon met the Cabinet every single day. Quezon was a symbol. Quezon was the Philippines. It was clear, however, that under no circumstances should Quezon be captured by the Japanese, so he left for Corregidor on Dec 23.

The commandant tells the Ateneo cadets that they have been disbanded. But they have a meeting among themselves, and they decide to volunteer. The officers talk to the commandant and say that they want to volunteer, but keep us as one unit. But the commandant says they have to go home. So they go home. But then the commandant accepts their offer, and so they go door to door looking for the people who are still there. They found 33 out of 400. They say goodbye to their teachers, have a final mass in the Chapel, and then go off to Bataan.

During the battle for Bataan, lines of defense

The Fall of Bataan and Corregidor

Bataan fell April 9. Corregidor fell May 6. Bataan Death March. Conditions. 4 days. From Maribeles to San Fernando. Then they took the train. Freight train. Boxcars. 100 per boxcar, packed like sardines. Camp O' Donnell internment. UST internment camp - civilians. Los Banos had another camp for American religious. For some reason, the Japanese were very brutal. General Jonathan Wayright had to surrender all the forces to Japan.

The Government-in-Exile

Sometime in February, MacArthur, Quezon and co evacuate to Australia. Later, Quezon moved to America to set up a government in exile, because the Commonwealth had to stay alive.

Occupied Philippines

"The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere" Asia for the Asians Each country would take care of each other, and at the head of this coprosperity sphere would of course be Japan.

Political reorganization
The Japanese Military Administration (Jan 2, 1942 - Oct 14,


A number of Quezon's Cabinet members remained in Manila. JASMS - Jose Abad Santos. TODO Story Executive Secretary - Jorge Vargas.

Jose P. Laurel was supposed to stay behind. Laurel broke down. He was in tears. Either bring me with you or let me go home to Batangas. I refuse to be responsible. He had a lot of business dealings with the Japanese. Of all the people in my Cabinet, you know the Japanese the most. So when he finally regained his composure, he asked Quezon what he could do and what he couldn't do - instructions.

Do anything to protect the Philippines, but do not pledge allegiance to the Japanese.

Cabinet: We'd like to keep the Commonwealth.

Japanese: We're going to change the goverment.

The Philippine Executive Commission

Vargas was the chairman. Problem: Each ministry had a Japanese advisor - a military advisor. A colonel or higher. Although you had the Filipinos running the government, they couldn't do anything because there were the Japanese officials. So it was really a Japanese Military Government.

Abolished all political parties. Kalibapi instead. Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod ng Bagong Pilipinas. Neighborhood associations. Tenyente del barrio. Provisions, distribution of food. A way of controlling people.

The Japanese couldn't understand why from the very beginning the Filipinos put up a very very determined resistance to them. From day 1, practically, there were guerrilla operations. In Indochina and Malaysia, the Japanese were practically welcomed. They couldn't quite figure out why the Filipinos rejected them so much. A leopard cannot change its spots and you cannot change the fact that you are Asians; why do you support the Americans and not us? What can we do to convince the Filipinos? Give them what they've always wanted.

The Republic (Oct 14, 1943 - Aug 17, 1945)

Jose P. Laurel. That is why after the war, there was that old controversy over collaboration. Two highest officials charged with collaboration - Vargas and Laurel. Collaboration meant treason. The fact that we had such a difficult time reconciling ourselves with the Japanese meant that the Japanese had to find other ways of reaching us.

Cultural Reorientation

Rekindle Filipino culture, introduce Japanese culture. Controlled media and reorganizing the school system. They made everyone submit their radios. Radio San Francisco. All mediums were closed down. Only one newspaper was allowed - the Tribune. Schools.

They wanted to teach Japanese. Teachers were trained, but they didn't have money for textbooks... If you find a textbook like this, it's very valuable. Commonwealth textbooks that were censored with markers, but you know kids will find ways around that. But parents didn't want to send their children to school. Dangerous. Schools were used as jailhouses sometimes, and torture centers sometimes...

Economic Restructuring

The Japanese didn't need our sugar. Sugar production is to be cut in half - the half that remains is for domestic consumption. They decided to develop us into a cotton and textile country to provide for the needs of the co-prosperity sphere. That was the plan.

Actual Conditions

Two things stand out. They never forgot how brutal the Japanese were. Slap. Very insulting. And atrocities. Extreme hardship. The economy was just in shambles. Extreme hardship for many of them. Kempetai, Japanese police, notorious for their brutality. Fort Santiago.

The Filipinos' Response

"The Philippines: From Occupation and Japanese 'Independence' to

Independence - Ricardo T. Jose Longest period of colonialization by western powers. Tradition of guerrilla resistance against the colonizer. No sense of urgency.

Two governments - de facto in the Philippines, govt in exile (Quezon) Executive Commission (Phil govt) made responsible to the Japanese; Japanese advisers, all actions had to be aproved by them. Centralized administration. Political parties disbanded. Series of district and neighborhood associations - houkou system. Independence? play along. censorship. cultural influences. Rajio taiso (series of exercises - commands and music on the radio). Study of Japanese language became mandatory. Quest for native Filipino cuture.

Economic hardship and Japanese brutality. Not been economically self-sufficient. All import channels were cut off. War disrupted farming cycle. Policy of local self-sustenance - Japanese military. More demands, limited supply. Unreliable transportation and communication. Reluctance to accept Japanese military bank notes. corporal punishment. military side of things. alien culture. anti-japanese sentiment. active resistance - guerrilla combat. feigned collaboration, but provided intelligence. degraded Japanese conquerors. Sitting it out. makapili - "patriotic league of filipinos" - war w/o conscription

Withdrawal and resistance: the political significance of food,

agriculture, and how people lived during the Japanese occupation in the Philippines - Kerkvliet Erratic economic conditions - dependent on world market Strongly influenced by world economy largely agricultural retained livelihood not linked to national and international markets Why were new plans not implemented?

Withdrawal and resistance

occupied - where Japanese regime concentrated its forces and offices

autonomous - beyond the reach of the regime, sources of livelihood and commerce were not dominated by or closely tied to the occupied areas. developed into well-organized resistance movements. Subtle resistance: humor. Withdraw from formal sector to informal sector of economy. Inflation... deny services to the regime. Switch back to barter.

small-scale manufacturing with local materials. indigenous production. ginger, coconut, other plant beverages. soap. handicrafts. salt making. medicines. access to food. gardening became common. direct links with rural food producers.

Postwar Republic

Post-war problems and the republic (ch24)

MacArthur begins the liberation of the Philippines in Leyte in

  1. He lands with Commonwealth President Sergio Osmena. (Quezon passed away in August 1944). When he arrives with Osmena, he is part of this whole myth. He was the guy whose picture was on the aparador of every young woman in Manila. The single most important American in the Philippines after the war. And that is going to impact Osmena's administration. As MacArthur moves from one island to another, he will turn over whatever he liberates from the Japanese to the Commonwealth. So he gets all the credit, but none of the responsibilities of rebuilding it. Enormous task of reconstructing the country. Osmena is an old man, practically 70. He is president of his country. He has no staff, no money, no assistants, but he has to rebuild the country. If he needs money, he has to go to people who have money, staff, etc. American military under MacArthur. Osmena finds himself in a difficult political situation, especially since we're talking about major devastation.

When a full constitutional government was restored to the Philippines, the Laurel government was still around. Laurel had to retreat with the Japanese as they were retreating northward. The existence of two governments theoretically meant now that the Filipinos had to confront the real issue of collaboration.

Post-war economic conditions

Production almost at a standstill - no capital to finance rehab of destroyed equip. Shipping and railways out of production. Livestock reduced, implements gone, power gone. Irrigation gone. Large areas of land neglected.

Philippine Civil Affairs Unit
Reorganization of the government

Osmena restored the executive departments in a back-dated executive order. creation of the department of information as part of the dept of public instruction

The Congress convened

Roxas can make things difficult for Osmena. MpacArthur thought Osmena was slow. MacArthur said that we needed a dynamic leader. He was getting very impatient, and he was thinking of someone like Roxas. Cultivated his political ambitions. Here is MacArthur saying that he can pressure Osmena. He wanted the Commonwealth to be completely restored as soon as possible. Reconvene the Congress, MacArthur said. Last election: 1941. Reconvene: everyone elected in 1941 must resume their seats. It is Congress that will take care of things like economic rehabilitation. He kept saying reconvene it already! Most of these people were collaborators, so he does not want the Congress controlled by people whose positions in politics have not yet been decided. MacArthur is pushing Osmena. Osmena reconvenes under the pressure. Elected president - Roxas. He can become an obstacle to what Osmena wants. Roxas was also chairman of commission on appointments. Roxas sits on priority bills, appointments.. One of the very first laws that the Congress passed was a law that gave themselves (members of Congress) back pay for the last three years. Can you imagine how offensive this sounds to the rest of the country. All the other government employees complain. Protests. Roxas said he would recommend passage of Back Pay Law if he was elected.

The Collaboration issue

Roosevelt wanted total removal. Needed them to be firm. People's Court soften the impact?

It is a problem that was very painful during the postwar period. It was tearing the country apart. The ordinary Filipino was so proud of the resistance we put up to the Japanese, and look at the people being tried for collaboration - the highest officials, the people you'd expect to have been loyal to the Philippines. Hard to find some kind of closure. So how is collaboration going to be solved? To Roosevelt, it seemed like a very simple issue. Purge. Get them out of their positions of influence. Remove them. The very act of collaboration is treason. Even hinted that if the issue was not favorably addressed, economic assistance would be withheld.

The problem with that kind of a recommendation is that it doesn't provide for a specific program in how to deal with collaboration. It is Osmena who has to provide for the specifics of how to go about it.

Failed to maintain loyalty toward the Phil and Am government. MacArthur as the most influential American in the country. Not only did they fail to maintain loyalty to Phil and Am, but he felt that he was personally offended by the collaborators. They were not loyal to him. He therefore announced that he would apprehend those accused of collaboration and turn them over to the Philippine government for judgment. How is Osmena going to go about dealing with this problem?

People's Court

Special court that was put up to try only cases of collaboration. Lorenzo Tanada, special prosecutor of the People's Court.

Not "If you collaborated with the enemy, that is treason. The act alone of collaboration is equal to treason." but rather people can present their case before the People's Court. Not passing judgment on the whole group, but rather on a case-to-case basis. Presumption that you are innocent, and the courts must prove you guilty. If you assume that each case is different, but the act is the same, then what will make each case different? Aside from action, you must also look at intention. What motivation could there be for collaboration?

Some of the collaboration was used to soften the impact of the Japanese on the ordinary Filipino. Cushion the blow. Do anything to protect the people, except swear allegiance. Following the instructions of Quezon. But Laurel has a problem. Quezon said that MacArthur said... but Quezon is dead, and MacArthur denies saying it.

Also, if you don't have a choice, then you go ahead and perform your functions. Push forward a Filipino agenda. Protect Philippine interests. Collaboration means you participate in the government of the Japanese. There is also economic collaboration - if you benefit from your association with the Japanese. Who is Osmena going to try? These are his friends, his contemporaries, his party members. Even his own son was charged with collaboration - economic collaboration, which many people felt was worse.

Is it possible because they were doing this because they were thinking of themselves? Is it possible that they were doing this because they wanted power? Is it possible that they were doing this because they were pro-Japanese?

Now the courts have to sift through all of this in order to find out who was loyal and who was a traitor. This is going to drag on - 5000 or so cases that must be sifted through.

In the meantime, when Osmena begins this task of settling collaboration issues, the Japanese were still here. While retreating northward, they retreated with Laurel and his cabinet. Then they brought him to Tokyo, where they wanted him to set up a government in exile. The cabinet were left in Baguio.

They went into American lines and they submitted themselves to the Americans. So they were arrested by the Americans. Information is controlled by the American military. Roxas is "freed" but the others are "captured". MacArthur personally vouches for Roxas, so he goes free. MacArthur felt he was above the People's Court. It became very clear to the Philippines that if Roxas was interested in furthering his political career, he has the Americans' full support. He has MacArthur's support.

So what's happening here? Collaboration is going to become an instrument in the struggle for power.

American financial aid

Package deal. You have to accept both. Americans felt guilty. It was American firepower that destroyed the country, and they kept promising aid. Remember that we had nothing. The very resources that this country depends on - human resources - is gone.

Tydings-Rehn Act
$120Mfor rehab of public works
$75Mfor budgetary purposes
$25Mfor redemption of guerrilla notes
$60Mloan for reconstruction
P100MAmerican Army surplus

Outright assistance. Not a loan - a grant.
$620M.1:2 dollar exchange rate.
$120M- cash for repair of roads, harbors, public properties
$100M- not cash, but in the form of US army surplus goods
$400M- war damage compensation to private individuals and corporations.

Not just Filipinos! Also Americans. $500 dollars limit. No matter how much you lost. We have to agree on trade relations first before we can give you more. Once you agree to the Bell Trade Act, then we can give you more money.

The Bell Trade and Rehabilitation Acts

Free trade for 20 years? Rejected. 8-year free trade. Then progressive taxing. Parity rights. Trade relief. Allow for a system of trade that is not too burdensome for the Philippines.

Free trade relationship for 8 years

(1946 - 1954), 1954 start of 5% gradual tariff, reaching 100% in 1974. Overdependence on the American market. Discouragement of local industry. Overspecialization of industries. Local industries cannot be protected.

Same rates of taxes on American products as on PhilippineNo export taxes from Philippines to USTax exemption for imported stuff for official usenon-quota immigrants and permanent residents - Americans >= 3 years

Quota of 1000 US citizens each year, over and above general

immigration laws

unilateral absolute quotas.

Not duty-free quotas. Quotas on the most important Philippine goods. Sugar, abaca, tobacco, coconut oil, rice, buttons, shells... However, the Bell Trade Act also said that the list of quotas could be changed at any time. Look for new markets. Diversify.

Quota allocation

How are you going to divide the quota among yourselves? Basis: 1940 production figures. Pre-war. The biggest producer gets the biggest allocation. The smallest producer gets the smallest allocation. Pre-war figures could encourage monopolies.

Peso tied to the US dollar

No control over national currency.

The exchange dollar as USD 1 : PHP 2, and under no circumstances was the Philippine government allowed to change that. Convertability could not be suspended at any time, and the transfer of funds from the Philippines to the US could not be restricted at any time. Exports will probably not be competitive.

Parity rights

Inequality. Alien becomes privileged individual.

Americans can use all our natural resources, going against our constitution. Americans can own public utilities. Any natural resource (all are owned by the state) that are open to Filipinos must also be open to Americans. This is unconstitutional, so you have to amend the constitution. Very very emotional issue.

Military Bases Agreement

Subic, Clark, John Hay, Sangley Point, air fields 27 areas throughout the countr*** Rebellion in Central Luzon.

The election of 1946
Roxas - MacArthur's support

Personal statement Pressure to convene Congress Harassed Osmena through nominations

Split - Liberal Wing of the Nacionalista Party

One concrete result of the collaboration issue was how the elite were now fragmented. The split was very very dangerous. Osmena supporters - Nationalista Party. Most of the members of NP were accused of collaboration. So they'll support Roxas. Do you think he will pass judgment on people who are accused of collaboration? Their political future is safe. Osmena realizes that he needs support from other sectors - other groups. The Democratic Alliance. This is the political party of Luis Taruc (a Huk). What do you know about the Huks? They're rebels. Peasants. Against collaborators. Communists. Realizing that here is Osmena who is courting the support of Communists, all the more the other elite leave Osmena. Osmena never campaigned. 40 years of public service. I am busy. I am putting this country back on its feet. He wanted to exit with some dignity. Grace in political defeat. Roxas - forms his own party, known as the Liberal Party. He was young, a go-getter, and he had a lot of support. MacArthur. American officials. Quezon widow. Very, very good orator. Roxas wins with 54% of the vote.

Policies of the Roxas Administration

rebuilding, industrialization, close cooperation with US

collaboration amnesty

Now that Roxas is president, he grants amnesty to everyone charged with collaboration. Who do you pardon? The guilty. Officially the cases are closed. The issue is over. But the issue was never resolved. Never, never, never been resolved. Every election after this - collaborator or not? As late as 1986, one of the campaign speeches of Marcos attacked the collaborators. It's 1986, and you're still asking "where were you during the Japanese occupation?" Issue: what does this country value? What is important to this country? Aren't we supposed to make some kind of statement? Choice of stability or justice - Roxas chooses stability. Bigger responsibility: rehabilitation Americans conveniently forgot about collaboration because of the rebellion. They're so scared of communism.

Guerrilla amnesty

general amnesty for killing and murdering, but kidnapping or property confiscation not in pursuance of the objectives of the guerrilla movement not there.

The treaty of general relations

US recognized Philippine independence. Philippines assumed responsibilites for all debts incurred after the Treaty of Paris.

The plebiscite of 1947

Repression was also seen in the way that the congressmen who were elected under the Democratic Alliance were kicked out in order that the Tydings act be passed. Political repression. Luis Taruc and co. Against collaborationists and parity rights. On parity amendment. Plebiscite ratified amendment based on Roxas' oratory.

Death of Roxas


Quirino's administration

they had lost confidence due to graft and corruption lack of peace and order huks gone underground

The Hukbalahap movement

Spanish origins

When you're talking about the Hux rebellion, you're talkng about a peasant movement or a peasant uprising. No date when the rebellion began. Huk rebellion. Was in some way connected to the Hukbalahap, which was a wartime guerrilla organization. Continuity bettween the hukbalahap and the huk rebellion. When you look at the hukbalahap, however, you see that the Hukbalahap is supposed to be directly related to the peasant movements in the pre-war period. It is not enough to know about the hukbalahap, but all the way back to the unions of the pre-war period.

Traditional ties between landlords and peasants
Patron-client ties numerous, diffuse, flexible presonal, face-to-face one not on compulsion or force but on reciprocity


customary obligations to the poor - the "little people" major obligations. evict tenants, rasyon...

Agriarian unrest under the Americans
Deterioration of traditional ties
Effects on tenants
Private armies

The government was paying half the salary of the civilian guards. We saw how they teamed up with the Military Police.

Political repression
Peasants' Response: collective, public action

Corruption means no money in the treasury. No way to guarantee that the army is paid. No way to pay the teachers. So that's why the rebellion's objective became overthrowing the government.

Rise of socialism and communism

Although the peasant union remained modest in its goals and its demands - low interest lows, that sort of ting - they were already growing in sophistication. partido comunista. 1929 Socialist Party of the Philip]ippnes. Pedro Abad Santos. Luis Taruc was a protege Central Luzon is in complete disarray.

Katipunang Pambansa ng mga Magbubukid sa Pilipinas
Philippine Labor Congress -> Labor Party
Katipunan ng mga Anak-pawis ng Pilipinas
Partido Comunista (after Soviet Russia)
Socialist party
The founding of the Hukbalahap

United front Anti-Japanese above all economic, political, military

The Peasant Movement During the Japanese Occupation

landlords must have access to food. Theyre in Manila. Can they get their food? They're afraid to go to central Luzon, which was controlled by the Hukbalahap. Since the Hukbalahap was made up of peasants, it was also against many of the landlords. So the landlords had to find some way to protect themselves. Luzon. By this time, the Japanese were retreating or fighting in central Luzon. That's why many landlords collaborated ith the Japanese. Other landlords who didn't like the Japanese joined the USAFFE guerrillas.

Many armed groups in central luzon. All of them are making their own demands on the civilian population. The PKP continues to inflluence the Hukbalahap. Underground. The USAFFE guerrillas and the Huks are both anti-Japanese, but there's very little cooperation when it comes to strategy. The Huks were the ones ambushing the Japanese and engaging in open combat. On the other hand, the USAFFE guerrillas. "egitimate" guerrillas. Support of MacArthur. The USAFFE feel that all other guerilla organizations should be subordinate to them. While the Huks are more agrgressive. But the USAFFE are different. Their role is to assist MacArthur. He's in Australia. He's supposed to come back. Intelligence gathering. pre-war animosity between landlords and tenants. The Americans are very anti-communist. The Hukbalahap have the PKP. The war experience, given what we've seen. Notice how the war experience pushes the landlord and tenant further apart. There's the issue of collaboration, that of subordination... peasants are being driven further away tofrom their landlords, and the peasants have become much closer to each other. The Hukbalahap is primarily an army

Hukbalahap sovereignty

Peace and order. Underground control. Control of Central Luzon. 'Liberated.'

Liberation and imprisonment

It had reached that point. The height of the rebellion was 1949 -

  1. The Huks were getting pretty successful. Somebody else becomes very worried and decides to intervene. China fell to Communism, and the US saw the Huks as part of this grand Communistic conspiracy to take over the world. Send as much military support and assistance as possible to the country, talking to Quirino of course. Quirino was forced to make a realistic appraisal of the shortcomings of his administration, and he is forced to take action.

In octo ber of 1944, the Americans begin their landing at Leyte. What do they find at central luzon. The huks had already established. Practically all of Central Luzon was already liberated by the Huks. They got there first. So they expect what? When you say that the Americans liberated the Philippines, you need to remember about the efforts and the preparations of the guerrillas. After the war, what is iexpected? Some kind of recognition. We contributed to liberation. Medal important. Compensation! Instead, what happened to the Huks? They were disarmed. At one time the USAFFE accused them of other crimes. They were made out as criminals. A number of their leaders were arrested. All of those governments that were put in place were dismantled and replaced by the USAFFE guerrillas. Wartim animosity continues after the war. ack to normal. Who's coming back to Central Luzon? Te landlords are coming bac. Many landlords were charging three years worth of back rents. To respond to this situation, commissoion to study. 60-40 sharing. the situation however remained very tense because now they were saying that the tenants said we have to return to organizing ourselves. better push their interests. Pambansang Kaisahan ng Mambubukid. PKM. The big difference between that and the prewar unions) is that this is Central-Luzon-wide. It is the PKM that will represent the peasants as they confront their landlords. 60/40, rasyon, low-interest loans, laywers. Organize discussion groups. hat caoused a lot of concerns was that it was also starting to become an alternative government. Here are the peasants. If they have a grievance, they don't go to the mayor - they go to the PKM. Let's try mainstream olitics. Democratic Alliance. They have 6 successful congressional candidates. However, these were removed from office because of the parity rights thing. Accused of electoral fraud. No investigation was ever made. The landlords get scared. In response, the landlords form civilian guards. Private armies. The Roxas government also subsidized the civilian guards. Semi-official organization of the government. Point of view of tenants. The government is now on the side of the landlords. The government has chosen sides. civilian guards were usually ex-USAFFE guerrillas. Recruited by the landlords to become civilian guards.

conditions in the countryside
repression by the government and the landlords

MPs. Civilian guards. Harrass peasants. Intimidate peasants. We have to respond with the samed force. So they begin to organize armed groups. HMB. Hukbong Magpapalaya ang Bayan Roxas has to do something. What does Roxas do? Pacification campaign. We just came froma war. How can we even start to help you if we're fighting with each other? We have to start rebuilding this country. If you stop fighting and you register yourseves with us, I will work for recognition of the Huks. Disarm the guards. And tenant reform. Taruc tried to convince people to lay down their arms. Juan Feleo. He gets kinapped. With a military escort! A few weeks later, a decapitated body positively identified as Feleo. Instant reaction - he was killed by the government? At that time... that was hen the rebellion began. Roxas. Meet force with force. Mailed fist policy. uirino

The arrest of Taruc

Mass arrest No formal charges Persecuted by those they had expected help from

Roxas and the Huks

Roxas - collaborators New party... Private army - huk battles Unseating of Taruc

The Pacification Campaign

Taruc, Feleo, Mateo del Castillo - went from barrio to barrio Juan Feleo - kidnapped and murdered

Outlawing of the Huks

illegal associations any connection indiscriminate arrests and killings

Amnesty proclamation

"Amnesty", but disagreement about what it meant to present arms. Peasants were asked to surrender their arms, but because the landlords still had private armies

Breakdown of Amnesty

present your arms

Murder of Mrs. Quezon

secret agreement? scrapping of bell trade act no resumption of trade division of large estates release of huk prisoners industrialization no military bases agreement

true cause - can't hold on to weapons

Reorganization of the armed forces

JUSMAG. Joint US Military Advisory Group. To develop a counter-insurgency campaign. They work with Quirino. He reorganizes the AFP. Edward Lansdale. CIA agent, American colonel. One of the things they did was to reorganize the Philippine Army - not the Air Force and the Navy, which tend to guard against foreign threats, but the Army into Battalion Combat Teams. More mobile. Better equipped. More flexible. Much more effective.

Finding an alternative - Magsaysay

The US is also quietly looking for an alternative to Quirino. Appoint a little-known congressman from Zambales named Ramon Magsaysay as the Secretary of National Defense. Before he was appointed, Magsaysay was not well-known. He was known to be very honest. Very pro-American. Did not have a national reputation. He is chosen as the secretary of national defense, and all of the assistance from the Americans flows through Magsaysay. From the government's side, it is Magsaysay who is in charge of the counter-insurgency campaign. He is also the one who cleaned up the corruption. He offers the Huks the hand of friendship and the hand of force. Magsaysay saw the problem of the Huk rebellion for what it really was. It wasn't ideological or political. At the root of this problem is land. The working conditions of tenants. And that is what we need to focus on. If you want land, there is land available. Other assistance was given as well. The land that he was going to make available was in Mindanao, because there's no more land in Central Luzon.

Fall of the Huk Politburo

Here is Magsaysay. Better equipped, better trained armed forces. While he was defense secretary, the top-ranking leaders of the PKP are captured. Politburo - the leadership of the Communist Party. 11 of the highest ranking captured and imprisoned. When you remove that leadership, you remove the ideological justification of the rebellion, the direction of the rebellion. Kerkuliet notes the role that these national leaders play in providing direction. Where were they captured? They were captured in Manila! These are not leaders on the ground. These are intellectuals, theoreticians. Beginning of the end of the Huk rebellion. No ideological leadership. It was the one talking about overthrowing the government..

It wasn't an abrupt end. IT was something that just waned, disappeared... What could be the effect of the Politburo having been captured? Demoralization is usually worse when people are very tired. battle fatigue. The fighting in Central Luzon started in 1942. It's already 1950. 8 years of continuous fighting. That leads to a weariness in battle. The squadron commanders were leading this little group of 20 armed men and after a while they just decide maybe we should stop and why should we stop? what is the alternative? They see the reforms that Magsaysay is willing to initiate. Individual actions.

Surrender of Taruc

Final stroke. Taruc. Taruc surrendered. 1954. Unconditional surrender. Spent several years in jail. Wrote memoirs. When he comes out of jail, he became a very vocal supporter of Marcos, for some reason. He's still alive.

Significance of the Huk movement

not isolated army. culmination of centuries of peasant degradation, loss of self-respect, abject poverty political concsciousness alien ideology

The recognition of the tao

Magsaysay campaign

US support. The US was increasingly concerned about the quality of politics in the Philippines. Quirino was seen as not powerful enough. The US needed to build up Magsaysay's reputation. Secretary of National Defense. There were a lot of articles coming out in American newspapers about Magsaysay. Geared toward an American audience. During the campaign, CIA assistants wrote his speeches, assisted with PR, and helped with his campaign in different ways. The Filipino people knew that.

And then American supporters of Magsaysay who convinced Magsaysay to move from LP to NP. Why did he need to stay Liberal? He needed to stay as the secretary of national defense so that he could go around as secretary. If he resigned early, he would lose his position. It was important for him to keep his negotiations secret. Even Laurel steps aside to give Magsaysay the candidacy.

The tao in history

dumb beast of burden fatalism

The presidential election of 1953

The US was also very concerned about the 1949 elections. The elections that appeared to be so fraudulent. If there was a repeat of the 1949 elections, Filipinos might lose their faith in the democratic process. They had to ensure a clean and credible election. NAMFREL. The 1950 NAMFREL. Not the NAMFREL of today. Why he used the same name, I have no idea. NAMFREL was American-supported. Made sure that cheating was minimal.

Keep in mind that even with US support... it's not the Americans who voted for Magsaysay. One of the reasons why that happened was, well, Magsaysay initiateda new style of politics that our country hadn't seen. "grassroots" campaign. Kerkvliet. Landlords and the tenants do things for each other, and one of the things that the tenants do is vote for their landlord's choices, right? This is how it used to be. So the candidates used to campaign only to the landlords. Never in the barrios. The ones who campaigned in the barrios were the local officials of the party, who were frequently the landlords. The local leaders handled that. Magsaysay was the very first who went directly to the barrio to campaign.

He also got a substantial segment of the middle class involved in the elections. Again, this was the first time that happened. The nonpoliticians organized the MPM - Magsaysay for President Movement. Civil society. This is not a party. These are middle class professionals who decide that they want a larger role in politics. They help Magsaysay in his campaign. A significant number of middle class nonpoliticians get appointed into government. The traditional route is patronage politics, but now Magsaysay taps the middle class and appoints them to positions in his government. Manglapus. Rodrigo. Manahan. Who are these people? (They're all Ateneans). Jingle composed by Manglapus. Ra-ra boys of Magsaysay.

More than 60% of the vote. A record in Philippine politics, no matter what Erap says.

Peace to the countryside. It's not a conspiracy, but rather a real need for better working conditions. Progress.

Magsaysay's charismatic leadership

charisma - "man of the people". a very populist president. Makamasa. US support Reputation for getting the job done. Efficiency. Honesty. Party machine. - He's really LP. But he moves to the NP. Token liberal member. Official party was LP, but that was only because he was part of Quirino's cabinet.


The Huk rebellion was still so vivid a memory for those landlords that Magsaysay knew he could pressure the Congress to pass the kinds of laws he wanted to pass.

Government for the people

We want to bring progress to the country side. Land tenure alone is not enough. Support services.

Infrastructure: farm-to-market roads, irrigation Health: artesian wells Technical experts ACCFA: Credit Marketing FACONAS - Farmers' cooperative

He created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee. People could actually tell their grievances to Malacanang. Send a telegram to Malacanang. You don't have to pay for it. Manahan receives the telegram and forwards it to the agency involved. Anything you want to complain about. Clean water. I don't have a job. Here you have a government that is willing to listen.

He opened Malacanang to the people.

Openness in goverment.

The spoiled masses

presidential complaints and action committee opened malacanang...

The failure of the tao

pampering them

The election of 1957

noisiest and most expensive

Garcia's program

austerity selective controls

Thu Sep 19 15:00:24 2002 (The government was paying half the salary

of the civilian gu)

HMB was also organized after the war. Roxas tried a pacification campaign, but that didn't work. Then outlawed Huks as well as the PKM. Organizing unions is not against the law. Quirino: Amnesty, then all-out drive Quirino is generally considered the most corrupt administration

Specific example. Jose Avelino, Senate President. Was the highest public official ever to be officially censured for corruption. Senate president! "What are we in power for?"

Oh, this is around the same time that Ateneo moves to Loyola Heights, which was a virtual wilderness. There was a tank just in case the Huks come down! They thought the Jesuits were insane!

As we can see, Magsaysay was a crucial factor in the end of the rebellion. He was very different as politicians in this country go.

Roxas 45-48. Quirino 48/49-53. Magsaysay 53-57 Garcia 57-61 Macapagal 61-65 Marcos 65-69,69...86 Significant changes in our manner of politics.

Martial Law Regime

Philippine society in the 1960s

Demographic change
Economic change
A new role for the Catholic Church

Organization of the basic sectors farmers, students, jeepney drivers

Changes in politics and government

Diversification of the elite

Rise of the middle class

Economic interests

Expanding their interests and activities outside their previous focus on agriculture. It could mean this same elite moving their capital to other fields.

Change in composition

Rise of the middle class


Increased rivalry Example. When Magsaysay ran in 1961, he ran on a platform that promised decontrol and devaluation. Agriculture was very much supportive of Magsaysay. The removal of controls was going to hurt the manufacturing class.

The elite now see how all the more important it is to have power in government. Even within a particular sector, you can have rivalry. The sugar bloc was pressuring the government to get higher sugar quotas, but the US government was asking for lower tarriffs on cigarettes coming in. Naturally tobacco companies resisted the notion.

It becomes all the more necessary to have representation in government.

What is the manifestation for increased rivalry?

Elections are getting dirtier and dirtier. Escalation of campaign spending and violence. You have families using government as an arena for elite disputes.

Growing power of national government

institution of the presidency growing in scope

Our government is inherently adversarial. FM (NP) Congress (LP)

Aggravated adversarial conflict. Congress was sitting on whatever programs Marcos planned. Example. 4 year infrastructure development program. roads and bridges and market facilities. Focused on the countryside. That's what Marcos wanted to do. This is his economic policy. The agricultural sector was the exporters - those who earned the dollars.

Marcos didn't want to wait that long.

Partly electoral strategy. Countryside is where the votes are. Congress in the hands of the opposing party decides to sit on this.

If you can't get money from Congress, where do you get it? Marcos resorts to external borrowing. Debts. He no longer needs Congress. Congress becomes irrelevant.

Philippine armed forces used to implement this program. No rebellion, so the army was building bridges and thisg. That in itself is also crucial. People are going to get used to the idea that the army has a role in nation building, and that the army is concerned with civilian matters. It no longer becomes unusual for the army to engage in what used to be civilian matters. Usually there's this bidding process, right? Marcos went straight to the army.

Declining respect for traditional politics
Traditional politics

family dynasties patronage politics - you give people positions you protect their interests. 2 party system. Party not really a party, but rather more like an extended family. Differentiated not by issues or platform, but rather the personalities.

Disloyalty to a party was very very common. Loyalty is not to a party, but to people. Lots of switching after the elections.

stimulant for disillusionment
anti-establishment movements anti-war - vietnam student activism

intra-elite rivalrynationalism Political Why do we always have to follow US interests? Vietnam Aid Law. Marcos sat on the bill. He refused to table it. It was shelved. I will never send troops to Vietnam. 1965-1966, he revived the Vietnam Aid Law. I'm not sure how he did it, but he convinced both Houses.

Macapagal: Filcag - engineering battalions. We are sending support troops, not fighting troops.

Marcos. Apparently, in exchange for his support, the US was going to be in charge of equipping the Philcag. Four-year infrastructure development plan. Bulldozers.

Philippine nationalism was expressed in a negative way. Not pro-, but rather anti- - anti-American, for example. These are no longer the people who went through World War II. Economic Another issue, for example, was the economic issue. Laurel-Langley. Parity rights were going to expire, and there was a lot of talk about what was going to happen to the American investors. American control and influence on a supposedly sovereign state.

traditional politics protects interests

but isn't it supposed to serve people?

emergence of the radical left alternative ideology becomes very attractive. Not just a manifestation of disillusionment, but rather a major political change.

student activism


mediaconstitutional convention of 19711969 elections

Duh electoral campaign. Issue of collaboration, yadayadayada.

Emergence of the radical left

PKP and HMB in the 1950s. Major PKP leadership in jail. HMB - some Huk units still floating around, but very little leadership. Some Huk units had degenerated into banditry.

Huk units out there. Kumander Sumulong - very little ideological content, and started to get involved in illegal activities. Kumander Diwa - closely related to the PKP Kumander Dante

ideological vacuum People are searching for something to give them direction and leadership


In the 1960s, Jose Maria Sison and some students and teachers joined the PKP. What do they find? Old people who were burned by the experience of failure and imprisonment. Very very cautious. Didn't want to engage in political activity again. PKP was also mostly of peasant background. Older group rather cautious and timid. New group. Intellectuals, much younger, more daring. Never experienced defeat before. Old leadership tells Sison - need to find out what we want to do. Please make an analysis of the PKP's past. Sison lambasted the leadership. PKP expelled him.

PKP - Soviet, laborers. CPP - Maoist, peasantry.

1964 Jose Maria "Joma" Sison - Kabataang Makabayan. Movement for the Advancement of Nationalism. 1968, Sison+10 others broke with the PKP and founded the Communist Party of the Philippines, doctrinaire Moist principles. Armed struggle. Peasantry.

Sison and Bernabe Buscayno, a former Huk guerrilla also known as Kumander Dante, then formed the New People's Army - military arm.

Philippine Society and Revolution PSR Amado Guerrero pseudonym of Joma Sison.

Christians for National Liberation. Father de la Torre. Marxist and revolutionary. Political organization of peasants.


Social unrest
Student activism

First Quarter Storm. Violent student and labor protests. start of the rapid disintegration of consensus politics. politics of the streets. Kabataang Makabayan (Jose Maria Sison). National Union of Students of the Philippines (Edgar Jocson).

1971 senatorial campaign

Plaza Miranda bombing. two grenades.

Blamed communists. Suspended writ of habeas corpus

Tue Sep 24 15:05:55 2002 (3rd Long Test on Tuesday, October 1)

3rd Long Test on Tuesday, October 1 Scope: ch 24, 25, 26 Jose: "The Philippine..." Kerculiet "Withdrawal" Kerkuliet "Conclusion" Timberman "Forces of Change"

Film showing "Batas Militar" Options: Fri: 27 Sept 9:30 - 11:30 OR 1:30 to 3:30, Escaler Postwar political and economic structures Background on Garcia -> 41% Macapagal Marcos Philippine Society of the 1960s Demographics change Economic change A new role for the catholic church

patchwork very little coordination between the different programs overflowing with good intentions need coordination ad hoc Election of 1947. 4 major contenders for the presidency. Manahan - "true successor of magsaysay" but new party garcia wins as president. first time minority vote. nationalista / vice president different parties vp no specific role in the government. no role. that's why cabinet - so part of the cabinet. official role in government. vp has no position in the government campaigning against garcia! <laugh> garcia was more well known for his economic policy filipino first

austerity 1961 macapagal

moved independence day - macapagal

1965 - contested the electionforthe presidency. nationalista party. biography sais that his political career began in 1935 - UP 18 ear old law student. 1935 - Commonwealth. General elections. Modest middle class family from Ilocos Norte. Upper middle class. Political family. His father had participated in politics on numerous occasions.. and he ran for a congressional seat. Traditional family - Julio Nalundasan Mariano Marcos lost the election. Smalltown politics. If you lose, you are shamed. nakakahiya. he's brushing his teeth.

assassinated. had to be a marksman. no light. profile. silhouette. killed instantly. 1935.

  1. Ferdinand Marcos. arrested and charged with the murder of Nalundasan. marcos was a sharpshooter. guilty of murder. He topped the bar. Highest average. He defends himself. 22 year old lawyer. Facing death. Defends himself. Brilliant mind. political capital.

The society that Marcos was president of was a society that was undergoing very very rapid change. moving to the urban centers. population rate up, up.

increase in population. 1903 7M 1939 16M 1948 19M 1870 - 36.7 M

certain demands on government. Population was very young.

education employment increased literacy



middle class

economic change

bell trade act trade deficit. it became so bad that the value of our imports exceeded exports every single year foreign exchange crisis

qirino had to ask for permission to impose forex controls central bank

import substitution - domestic manuacturing import substitution industrialization


we have last-stage manufacturing

ssomblp d .cjgung just changes our imports.

Magsaysay Bell Trade Act amendments? Laurel-Langley Agreement

  1. Altered tariff schedule
  2. recognized the right of the Philippine overnment to determine its own currency
  3. parity was very unfair!expands parity. all business activity parityis reciprocal!

filipino first Filipino citizens will be given first priority in the allocation of dollars.

Decontrol Macapagal Tariffs Imports expensive Devalueation

catholic church explicit comitment toward marginalized sectors church of the poor

Montemayor. dean of college of law, ateneo. organiing among peasans. federation of free farmers federation of free workers express a commitment to social reform. more involved. two basic effects. church growing in its political influence basic sectors conscinticized. more politically sophisticated. educated. literate. more expectant of governent. they will exect more things. can be disillusioned. sophisticated.

  1. diversification of elite increased power in the presidency declining respect for traditional politics. Emergence of the radical left (cpp-npa)

diversification - economic interests... composition iven the rise of the mdille class

Thu Sep 26 15:00:52 2002 (The emergence of the radical left)

The emergence of the radical left clearest rejection of traditiona elite democracy

1971 senatorial campaign

Constitutional convention controversy

constitutional convention - divided between maintaining status quo and those who wanted change. idealists - reform of society trapo - clients or relatives revolutionaries - forum for denunciation professionals - pragmatic parliamentary system?


small bomb explosions. impending communist uprising? staged ambush.


true popular democracy never really existed

accelerating level of conflict within the elite popular opposition to both trad elite and trapo desire of uUS to protect its investments and military installs

democracy was never viable because of cultural and socio-economic


natural predisposition to authoritarianism excessive respect for hierarchy predominance of kinship ties feudal nature domination of the elite pervasive poverty, ineq

liberal democracy luxury
democracy worked for a while, but demands for breader

participation or predations of Filipinos

imperfect democracy working, undermined.

constitutional authoritarianism

major changes

concentration of power in marcos
emasculation of the traditional elite
enlarged role for the military
rise of the technocrats
rapid economic growth
impact on the communist movement
effect on muslim secessionism

ignited long simmering discontent nur misuari formed moro National Liberation Front and Bangsa Moro Army.

creation of a Fil Ideology

subsequent impact

emasculation of opposition
overcentralization of executive power
decline of judicial independence
destruction of democratic institutions and politics
politicization and deterioration of the military
mounting human rights violations
politicization of the catholic church

from corruption to "kleptocracy"

failure of economic policy-making
decline of the agricultural sector and failure of agrarian reform

masagana 99 high yield varieties mneed expensive fertilizers and poesticides

expansion of the communist insurgency

Thu Sep 26 15:06:16 2002 (We will feel the effects of these changes

as we go through t)

We will feel the effects of these changes as we go through the 1970s and 1980s. For example, the Catholic Church becomes socially involved in the 1960s.

Removal of all traditional sources of opposition - as Congress is removed and he clamps down on media, the single institution that will remain able to act as a voice of dissent will be the Catholic Church. The roots of political involvement of the Catholic Church begin in the 1960s.

Other matters


. * For Thursday (20 June) Review Hi165 notes on the Katipunan/Outbreak of the Revolution Eep! For some reason, my notes aren't there.

. * For Tuesday (25 June)

Submit one 1x1 picture. Seat plan to be finalized. Read Ch11 - "The Revolution Second Phase"

. * For Thursday (27 June)

Read Ch 12 "The Malolos Republic" and start reading Guerrero, "The Provincial and Municipal Elites"

. * For Tuesday (2 July)

Continuation of today's topic, same reading assignment Start reading Ch13 - FilAm hostilities

. * For Thursday (4 July)

Ch 13 - Fil-Am Hostilities, May, "Why the US won the Philippine-American War"

. * For Tuesday

Read Healy, "Destiny and Dollars"

. * For Tuesday (23 July 2003)

Read Ch.15. The Period of Suppressed Nationalism

. * For Thursday (25 July 2003)

First Long Test. Scope: Ch 11, 12, 13, 15. Guerrero, May, Healy, class notes.

Other stuff

Very structured person. Rizal and the Emergence of the Philippine Nation formation of a consciousness - thinking of self as Filipino But establishment happens in Hi166: government, economy... Wow. She actually makes this sound cool. Imagine trying to become independent after your country has been devastated in a World War. But we did it! Definitely find a way to OCR this... Definitely find a way to record audio. Discussion moves too fast for me. Follow the dates on the course calendar. Revolution usually means restructuring of society, but as you see that didn't happen because the same class of people that were in power before stayed in power. Perpetuation of the dominance of the principalia. Wouldn't it have been better to have separate states? negros elite wanted a federal goverment ag is 29. difficult uniting cream of the Filipino intelligensia. All appointed positions with the best that he can find. The most educated people Aguinaldo could find. Many of them prior to their appointment to Congress was on the side of Spain. For example, Cayetano Arellano, who to his credit never joined because he was always sympathetic to Spain. You have the intelligensia... and then the military commanders. They see all of these newcomers come it. A silent tension between the newcomers and the military commanders who have been with Aguinaldo since the beginning arms and ammunition problem: arms, but too few. Lack of ammunition! so you cannot aim. and they cut off the sights. regular army sandatahan - militia horses crucial: leadership crucial: military tactics navy - archipelago - restricted movement where can you get arms? overseas coordination feb 10 fall of caloocan terminal of manila-dagupan railway you take all of central luzon in language of today - coup d'etat conventional vs guerilla