Situating Teachers’ Instructional Practices in the Institutional Setting of the School and District — education, research From the text:

The teachers' instructional practices were more heterogeneous after they had collaborated with us for 2 years. Differences were apparent in the extent to which the teachers expected students' to justify their reasoning, posed questions to understand stu- dents' solution processes, expected students to listen to and make judgments about others' explanations, and encouraged multiple solutions. All but one of the teachers had previously used the tra- ditional textbook series as the primary basis for their instruction. Three now relied primarily on the reform textbook series and the other three used the two series in combination. It was also no- ticeable that only two of the teachers continued to use textbooks as blueprints for instruction. The remaining four teachers mod- ified and adapted textbook lessons based on their understanding of their students' reasoning. Despite these differences, we were able to identify some general patterns in their teaching. For ex- ample, there was an overall shift away from demonstrating pro- cedures and toward leading whole class discussions that focused on students' solutions.